(HealthDay News) -- Damage to the lungs is one of the first things people think about when it comes to the health detriments of smoking. But smoking can affect much of your body, right down to your bones and muscles.
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons says smoking can have the following effects on the musculoskeletal system:
- Increases risk of osteoporosis.
- Reduces bone density.
- Reduces blood supply to bones, causes bone cells to form more slowly, and impairs calcium absorption.
- Reduces the effectiveness of estrogen therapy.
- Raises your risk of hip fracture.
- Raises your risk of rotator cuff injuries.
- May contribute to low back pain and rheumatoid arthritis.
- Extends healing time after bone fractures.