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Omega-3 Fatty Acids Have Novel Antithrombotic Effects

Omega-3 fatty acids alter clot properties and decrease thrombin formation in arterial disease

FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) treatment for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may decrease thrombin formation and oxidative stress, and improve fibrin clot properties, according to a study published online May 26 in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

Grzegorz Gajos M.D., Ph.D., from the the Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow, Poland, and colleagues investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA on plasma fibrin clot properties and generation of thrombin in patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI. A total of 30 participants were randomized to receive 1 g n-3 PUFA per day, and 24 to receive placebo for one month. Lysis time (t50 percent), plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks), prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2), peak thrombin generation (Cmax) from automated thrombogram, C-reactive protein (CRP), and 8-isoprostaglandin F (8-iso-PGF) were measured in participants at baseline, after three to five days, and 30 days following randomization.

The investigators found no difference between the two groups at baseline. Compared to placebo, one month of treatment with n-3 PUFA was significantly correlated with a higher Ks, shorter t50 percent, and lower F1.2, Cmax and 8-iso-PGF, but it had no effect on fibrinogen or CRP. Treatment assignment, fibrinogen, and 8-iso-PGF were independently and significantly correlated with fibrin clot permeability (R2 = 0.66), after one month of treatment.

"Our results demonstrated improved clot properties and decreased thrombin formation after treatment with n-3 PUFA in CAD patients, which indicate novel antithrombotic effects produced by these agents," the authors write.

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