FRIDAY, March 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Even if you don't develop high blood pressure from eating too much salt, you may still be damaging your blood vessels, heart, kidneys and brain, a new study warns.
Researchers reviewed available evidence and found that high levels of salt consumption have harmful effects on a number of organs and tissues, even in people who are "salt-resistant," which means their salt intake does not affect their blood pressure.
High salt consumption levels can lead to reduced function of the endothelium, which is the inner lining of blood vessels. Endothelial cells are involved in a number of processes, including blood clotting and immune function. High salt levels can also increase artery stiffness, the researchers said.
"High dietary sodium can also lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, or enlargement of the muscle tissue that makes up the wall of the heart's main pumping chamber," said study co-author David Edwards. He is an associate professor in kinesiology and applied physiology at the University of Delaware.
"As the walls of the chamber grow thicker, they become less compliant and eventually are unable to pump as forcefully as a healthy heart," he explained in a university news release.
High salt intake can also harm kidney function and may also affect the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers what is commonly known as the fight-or-flight response, according to the study published March 17 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Study co-author William Farquhar is professor and chair of the department of kinesiology and applied physiology at the university. He said, "Chronically elevated dietary sodium may 'sensitize' sympathetic neurons in the brain, causing a greater response to a variety of stimuli, including skeletal muscle contraction.
"Again, even if blood pressure isn't increased, chronically increased sympathetic outflow may have harmful effects on target organs," he said in the release.
The U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration outlines how to reduce your salt intake.