January 2009 Briefing - Diabetes & Endocrinology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Diabetes & Endocrinology for January 2009. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Estrogen Protects Against Effects of High-Fat Diet

THURSDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Modulation of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) pathway may protect against insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, suggesting it is an effective target for high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes, according to the results of a study in mice published online Jan. 22 in Endocrinology.

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Effects of Cardiovascular Drug Torcetrapib Explored

THURSDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Torcetrapib, a cardiovascular drug that failed the phase 3 trial ILLUMINATE because of increased mortality, has other molecular targets in addition to cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), according to research published online Jan. 22 in Endocrinology.

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Bisphenol A Levels Do Not Decrease with Fasting

THURSDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Bisphenol A, an industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and polyvinyl chloride plastic, may accumulate in body tissue or be ingested via substantial non-food sources, according to study findings published online Jan. 28 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Weight Loss Reduces Urinary Incontinence in Obese Women

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- In overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence, a six-month weight-loss program significantly reduces the frequency of self-reported incontinence episodes, researchers report in the Jan. 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Glucose Control Important for Acute Coronary Syndrome

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Cardiologists should be aware of the link between admission hyperglycemia and increased mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, according to an article published Feb. 3 in a supplement to the Journal of the American College of Cardiology devoted to glucose issues.

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Insulin Therapy Linked to Better Pediatric ICU Outcomes

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The use of insulin to target blood glucose to age-adjusted normal fasting values was associated with improved outcomes in infants and children in intensive care, according to research published online Jan. 27 in The Lancet.

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Chronic Hyperglycemia Linked to Cognitive Dysfunction

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher A1C levels are associated with lower scores on cognitive tests, researchers report in the February issue of Diabetes Care.

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Caloric Restriction Improves Memory in Elderly

TUESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Reducing calorie intake by 30 percent improves memory in elderly individuals, according to research published online Jan. 26 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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AHA Supports Omega-6 for Possible Heart Protection

TUESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- The American Heart Association recommends that at least 5 to 10 percent of individuals' calories should come from omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, according to a science advisory published online Jan. 26 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Exercise Can Reduce Insulin Resistance in Obese Elders

TUESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Combining resistance and aerobic exercise is the best way to reduce functional limitations and insulin resistance in elderly patients with abdominal obesity, according to study findings published in the Jan. 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Clinical Information Technology Leads to Safer Hospitals

TUESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitals that make use of clinical information technology to automate notes, records, order entry and clinical decision support have lower mortality rates, fewer complications and also save money, according to a report published in the Jan. 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Prolonged Use of Loop Diuretics May Raise Fracture Risk

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Postmenopausal women who use loop diuretics are at increased risk of fractures, according to a report published in the Jan. 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Nomograms May Help Predict Kidney Transplant Outcomes

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- A set of nomograms may be helpful in predicting renal function and graft survival in living donor kidney transplantation, according to research published online Jan. 23 in the Journal of Urology.

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Linked to Insulin Resistance

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance in obesity and also independently of obesity, which may increase the risk of developing other chronic conditions, according to two studies published in the February issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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AHA Reveals Top 10 Heart Disease Research Advances

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- The American Heart Association (AHA) has released its annual top 10 list of advances in research into heart disease and stroke, with a study on the impact of smoke-free legislation on hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome topping the list.

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Formulas Show Promising GFR Estimation in Children

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- New formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children with chronic kidney disease can provide results comparable to the best equations for adults, according to research published online Jan. 21 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Teenage Obesity Linked to Poor Maternal-Fetal Outcomes

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight and obesity in teenage mothers is associated with an increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes, according to research published in the February issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Parathyroid Hormone Linked to Post-Fusion Benefits

FRIDAY Jan. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Parathyroid hormone (PTH) may hold potential for improving outcomes following spinal fusion, according to research published in the Jan. 15 issue of Spine.

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Brain Scans Show Effects of Self-Inhibition Toward Food

THURSDAY, Jan. 22 (HealthDay News) -- During food stimulation, men who suppressed their hunger and desire for food showed reduced activation in brain structures linked to emotional regulation, according to research published online Jan. 21 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Baby with Seizures Had Rickets and Anemia

THURSDAY, Jan. 22 (HealthDay News) -- A 9-month-old baby who presented with seizures and a bulging fontanelle was diagnosed as having rickets due to vitamin D deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and severe protein-calorie malnutrition, according to a case report published in the Jan. 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Supplements Can Contain Excess Iodine

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Some over-the-counter supplements contain high levels of iodine that may interfere with radioiodine treatment in patients with thyroid cancer, according to a case study published in the Jan. 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Heart Risk Linked to Metabolic Syndrome and Smoking

TUESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- In China, older adults with metabolic syndrome who are exposed to either active or passing smoking have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, according to a report published in the Jan. 27 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Unique Saliva Proteins Identified in Diabetes Patients

MONDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Type 2 diabetes patients have a unique pattern of protein expression in their saliva, and many of these proteins have a role in metabolism, according to a study published Jan. 2 in the Journal of Proteome Research.

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Metabolic Syndrome Common Among Football Linemen

MONDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Collegiate football linemen may be at risk of cardiovascular disease because of metabolic syndrome, according to a study published in the November/December issue of the Journal of Athletic Training.

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Smoking Teens at Risk of Obesity in Adulthood

FRIDAY, Jan. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents who smoke are more likely to develop abdominal obesity in later life than their non-smoking counterparts, according to research published in the February issue of the American Journal of Public Health.

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Diabetes, Obesity Significantly Impact Hospital Costs

FRIDAY, Jan. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Obese patients consume considerable hospital resources, according to an upcoming study in Value in Health. In a related study, hospitals have room for improvement to achieve standards for hospital diabetes care from the American Diabetes Association, researchers report in the January issue of the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Gene Variants Linked to Pancreatic Cancer Risk

FRIDAY, Jan. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Variants of two DNA repair proteins affect the risk of pancreatic cancer, while other DNA repair protein variants are associated with diabetes and the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to study findings published in the Jan. 15 issue of Clinical Cancer Research.

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In Vitro Fertilization Can Best Help Younger Women

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) -- In vitro fertilization can help younger women overcome infertility, but it cannot reverse the effects of age on fertility, researchers report in the Jan. 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Supplement May Play Different Roles in Prostate Scenarios

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) -- In the healthy prostate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may be benign, but in the presence of reactive stroma and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), it may promote more androgenic effects, according to research published online Jan. 13 in Cancer Prevention Research.

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Genes Predict Adrenocortical Malignancy and Survival

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) -- A two-gene signature can predict malignancy and survival in patients with adrenocortical tumors independently of pathology and tumor staging, according to research published online Jan. 12 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Weight Loss Linked with Liver Improvement

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Orlistat induces moderate weight loss associated with significant improvements in insulin resistance, steatosis and liver histology, according to the results of a study published in the January issue of Hepatology.

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Finger Length Ratio in Male Traders Predicts Profitability

TUESDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- The ratio of the second to the fourth finger, a marker of prenatal testosterone exposure, in male high-frequency financial traders predicts their long-term profitability, according to research published in the Jan. 13 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Diabetes Status Affects Brain Damage in Dementia

MONDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Elderly dementia patients with or without diabetes appear to have distinct patterns of cerebral damage, according to study findings published online Jan. 12 in the Archives of Neurology.

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Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Safe, Effective

MONDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Intravenous low-osmolar contrast-enhanced computed tomography is a safe procedure for localizing pheochromocytoma in patients, according to research published in the Jan. 6 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Soda Consumption Increasing Dramatically in US Adults

THURSDAY, Jan. 8 (HealthDay News) -- American adults are consuming significantly larger amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages -- especially soda -- and consumption is highest among subgroups with an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, according to study findings published in the January issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Decreased Fitness Seen with Small-Screen Recreation

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Health-related fitness is inversely associated with sedentary behavior and small-screen recreation among adolescent girls, but not boys, according to research published online Jan. 6 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Stress Explains Resistance to Appetite-Suppressing Hormone

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The resistance of obese individuals to leptin, a fat hormone that suppresses appetite, is due to increased cellular stress and the subsequent cellular response, according to study findings published in the Jan. 7 issue of Cell Metabolism.

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Diet Influences Effect of Gene Variant on Metabolism

TUESDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- A common gene variant has beneficial effects on metabolism such as reducing the risk of obesity and diabetes, but not in mice fed a fatty diet, according to the results of a study published in the Jan. 7 issue of Cell Metabolism.

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School-Age Activities May Have Lasting Bone Benefits

TUESDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-bearing exercise at a young age may offer benefits to bone health 40 years later, according to research published online Jan. 5 in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

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Hundreds Acquired Hepatitis B, C in US Health Care Settings

TUESDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- More than 400 people were found to have acquired hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) in non-hospital health care settings since 1998 in the United States, with more than 60,000 estimated to have been at risk during these outbreaks, according to research published in the Jan. 6 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Antioxidants Not Seen to Reduce Women's Cancer Risk

THURSDAY, Jan. 1 (HealthDay News) -- The use of supplemental vitamins C and E and beta-carotene -- all antioxidants -- does not appear to reduce the incidence of total cancer or cancer mortality in middle-aged and older women, according to research published in the Jan. 7 Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Osteoporosis Drug Increases Bone-Resorbing Cells

THURSDAY, Jan. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term treatment with the osteoporosis drug alendronate is associated with a higher number of bone-resorbing osteoclasts that are often abnormal in appearance and undergoing protracted death, researchers report in the Jan. 1 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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