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July 2008 Briefing - Diabetes & Endocrinology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Diabetes & Endocrinology for July 2008. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Pregestational Diabetes Raises Birth Defect Risk

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women with pregestational diabetes mellitus are more likely than pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus to have a child with birth defects, according to a report published online July 31 in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Drugs Mimic Exercise and Increase Endurance

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Two drugs can increase exercise endurance in mice by reprogramming their muscles, according to research published online July 31 in Cell. One drug is effective only in conjunction with exercise while the other is effective even in sedentary mice.

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Adverse Outcomes in IVF Babies Analyzed

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Babies conceived spontaneously and as a result of assisted fertilization by the same woman have similar risks of adverse outcomes, meaning that adverse outcomes among assisted fertilization babies may be attributable to the underlying causes of infertility rather than the fertility treatment itself, according to a report published online July 31 in The Lancet.

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Endothelial Function Linked to Cardio Risk in Sedentary

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Endothelial function is significantly associated with cardiovascular risk in women in sedentary professions, with cardiorespiratory fitness being the best predictor of endothelial function, according to study findings published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Cardiology.

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Dementia Linked to Both High and Low Thyrotropin Levels

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Abnormal thyrotropin levels in women are associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease, according to the July 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Diabetes-Diet Link Examined in Trio of Studies

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus, while increased consumption of fruit drinks may increase risk, and diets low in fat have no effect on development of diabetes, according to three articles published in the July 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Exercise Is Key for Long-Term Weight Loss

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Sustaining a 10 percent or more weight loss requires fairly high levels of physical activity in combination with reduced energy intake, according to an article published in the July 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Postmenopausal Estrogen May Increase Reflux Symptoms

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women may slightly increase the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux, according to research published in the July issue of Gastroenterology.

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Receptor Activation Inhibits Prostate Cancer Growth

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- The liver X receptor (LXR), which had previously been shown to sense cholesterol metabolites, can also reduce androgen production and inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells, according to research published in the August issue of Endocrinology.

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Drug Restores Heart Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Mice

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Treating obese mice with Captopril, an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system, restores insulin sensitivity in their hearts but does not affect insulin levels or glucose tolerance, researchers report in the August issue of Endocrinology.

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High Soy Intake Linked to Low Sperm Counts

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Men who consume high levels of soy-containing foods tend to have lower sperm counts, with no effect on sperm motility or morphology, according to research published online July 23 in Human Reproduction.

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Treatment Guidelines Issued for Pre-Diabetic Patients

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with pre-diabetes may need aggressive lifestyle management, medication, or both to reduce their risk of developing overt diabetes and cardiovascular disease, according to a Consensus Statement released July 23 in Washington, D.C., by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.

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'Tier 4' Drugs Raise Questions About Affordability

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- The emergence of a fourth tier of copayment for expensive drugs calls into question how Americans are going to handle the rising costs of health care, according to a perspective article in the July 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Consequences of Genetic Non-Discrimination Act Examined

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- The Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act (GINA), recently signed into U.S. law, creates a troublesome distinction between those at genetic risk for a disease and those with other characteristics that predispose them to a condition, according to a perspective article published in the July 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Physicians to Get Bonus for Electronic Prescribing

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors using an electronic prescriptions system will be eligible for a bonus from Medicare from 2009 onwards for four years, according to U.S. health officials.

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Gender Affects Heart's Response to Obesity

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Myocardial metabolic responses to obesity significantly vary by gender, according to the results of a study published in the July issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Imaging.

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Peers Play Key Role in Nutrition Education of Latinos

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Peer education can help improve diabetes self-management and breast-feeding outcomes among Latinos, researchers report in the July issue of the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.

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Maternal Obesity Linked to Obesity in Offspring in Rats

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Offspring of obese mother rats or those overfed after birth are considerably heavier and are more likely to be fatter, glucose intolerant, have high lipid levels and have changes in appetite hormones, according to study findings published online July 17 in Endocrinology.

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One-Fourth of the U.S. Population Is Obese, CDC Reports

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity rates in the United States remain well above goals for Healthy People 2010, according to a report by researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published in the July 18 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Only Modest Proof for Diabetic Gastroparesis Drug

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Although the majority of trials of domperidone to treat diabetic gastroparesis yield results in favor of using the drug, the findings should be treated with caution because of the lack of control arms in positive studies, according to a review article published in the July issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Exception Reporting Improves Pay-for-Performance Benefits

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Pay-for-performance programs benefit from use of exclusion reporting, whereby certain patients are excluded from quality calculations, and the practice of excluding patients to disguise missed targets, known as gaming, is rare, according to study findings published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Medical Education Must Adapt to Changing Times

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Medical schools must adapt their admission requirements and curricula to changes in scientific theory, and are also facing a challenge to the traditional definition of who is suited to the study of medicine, according to two articles published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Study Points to Interaction of Stress, Glucocorticoid Receptor

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Glucocorticoid receptors in the forebrain appear to be necessary for glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of acute psychogenic but not systemic stress responses, according to the results of a study in mice published online July 10 in Endocrinology.

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Mediterranean and Low-Carb Diets Show Benefits

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets appear to be safe, effective alternatives to low-fat diets for weight loss, and offer some metabolic benefits, according to research published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Eye Knowledge Low in Sample of Hispanics with Diabetes

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Relatively few Hispanics in Baltimore with diabetes or a family history of the disease were knowledgeable about diabetes-related eye complications, according to research published in the July issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

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Physical Activity Falls Sharply During Adolescence

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Between the ages of 9 and 15, physical activity fell steeply for American boys and girls in a geographically diverse sample, according to research published in the July 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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AMA Actions Fostered U.S. Medical Racial Divide

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- From the post-Civil War years to the civil rights era a century later, the American Medical Association (AMA) made decisions that helped support a division between white and black Americans in the field of medicine in the United States, according to an article in the July 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Many People Unable to Recognize Need to Slim Down

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- The threshold at which overweight people perceive their weight to be cause for concern has risen dramatically over the past eight years, according to the results of a U.K. study published online July 10 in BMJ Online First.

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Aspirin Improves Bone Density in Mouse Osteoporosis

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Aspirin treatment of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis in mice can improve bone mineral density by stimulating the production of bone-forming cells and inhibiting bone-resorbing cells, researchers report in the July issue of PLoS ONE.

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Non-Invasive Biomarker May Help Screen for Liver Fibrosis

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Type 2 diabetes patients who are at high risk for liver fibrosis may benefit from a screening test using a non-invasive biomarker, according to a report published in the July issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Peptide Reduces Mortality After Heart Attack in Rats

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Early treatment with ghrelin soon after a myocardial infarction prevents an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and reduces mortality in rats, according to the results of a study published online July 3 in Endocrinology.

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Weight Loss Trial Has Good Results At Six-Month Mark

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- In the first phase of the Weight-Loss Maintenance trial, participants made substantial progress in losing weight due to dietary changes and increased physical activity, according to a report published in the August issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Frequent Dialysis Increases Costs But Is Cost-Effective

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- More frequent hemodialysis is more expensive but cost-effective for patients with end-stage renal disease, and the increased costs could be neutralized by changing the economic model underlying dialysis delivery, according to research published online July 9 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Health Cash Incentives for Poor People Debated

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Should disadvantaged people be paid to take care of their health? That's the question of a "Head to Head" debate published online July 8 in BMJ.

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Insulin Resistance Linked to Peripheral Arterial Disease

TUESDAY, June 17 (HealthDay News) -- Insulin resistance is strongly associated with peripheral arterial disease, and modifies the relationship between markers of inflammation and peripheral arterial disease, according to research published online June 16 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Biomarker Linked to Higher Diabetes Risk in Elderly

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- High blood levels of fetuin-A, a hepatic secretory protein that binds the insulin receptor and blocks insulin action, is associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in healthy elderly individuals, according to research published in the July 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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α-Linolenic Acid Cuts Risk of Myocardial Infarction

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Increased intake of the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid is associated with decreased risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction and increased intake of the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid is associated with reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, according to two articles published online July 7 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association and Hypertension.

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Aerobic Training Reverses Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Patients randomized to aerobic interval training versus an equivalent amount of continuous moderate exercise experienced greater improvements in aerobic capacity and reversed more risk factors of the metabolic syndrome, according to an article published online July 7 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association. In a related study, full scale implementation of 11 prevention measures prevented up to two-thirds of myocardial infarctions and one-third of strokes.

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Clinical Report Emphasizes Pediatric Lipid Screening

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians should focus on cholesterol screenings for children and improving lipid and lipoprotein concentrations to reduce the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease, according to a clinical report published in the July issue of Pediatrics. The report -- "Lipid Screening and Cardiovascular Health in Childhood" -- replaces the 1998 policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics on cholesterol in childhood.

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Fat Hormone Predicts Coronary Artery Calcium

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of the hormone leptin secreted by fat cells and a measure of insulin resistance are strong predictors of high coronary artery calcification in healthy asymptomatic adults at risk of cardiovascular disease, according to the results of a study in the July 15 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Resveratrol May Offer Some Dietary Restriction Benefits

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- In mice, adding resveratrol to the diet leads to gene expression patterns similar to those seen in dietary restriction, as well as decreased inflammation and increased aortic elasticity, but not increased longevity when begun at midlife, according to research published in the Aug. 6 issue of Cell Metabolism.

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Bone Marker Control Benefits Hemodialysis Patients

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- In hemodialysis patients, consistent control of three markers for mineral and bone disorders -- parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus -- within guidelines established by the National Kidney Foundation is a strong predictor of survival, according to a report published online July 2 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Rosiglitazone Linked to Less Neuropathy in Diabetic Mice

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- In a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy, rosiglitazone improved a measure of thermal latency and reduced oxidative stress in the sciatic nerve, and novel transcriptional control sequences were found in genes correlated with diabetic neuropathy, according to research published online June 26 in Endocrinology.

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Novel Drug Effective in Some Advanced Thyroid Cancers

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Use of motesanib diphosphate -- a novel oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors -- may be an effective treatment for some patients with advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer, according to research published in the July 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Environmental Factors In Utero May Trigger Adult Illness

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- The long latency period between exposure to an environmental trigger and cancer has already been recognized, but the same phenomenon may apply to chronic diseases such as metabolic disease and osteoporosis, with exposure to triggers in utero and early life causing disease in adulthood, according to a report published in the July 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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High Birth Weight Linked to Rheumatoid Arthritis

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- In women, a high birth weight is independently associated with an increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

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Hormone Therapy Modifies Heart Risk of Lipoprotein(a)

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- In older women, the relationship between high lipoprotein(a) levels and cardiovascular events is modified by hormone therapy, according to study findings published in the July 8 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Comorbid Illness Reduces Impact of Glucose Control

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Comorbid illnesses and functional impairments are more important than age alone in predicting the efficacy of intensive glucose control, researchers report in the July 1 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Liver Disease in Overweight Children Linked to More Risks

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are more likely to have metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors than overweight children without NAFLD, according to research published online June 30 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Population-Based Programs Key to Battling Obesity

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Population-based initiatives aimed at preventing excess weight gain complement clinical preventive strategies and treatment for obese people, according to an article published online June 30 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Physician's Briefing