Nanoparticles May Have Role Against Autoimmune Diseases

Coated nanoparticles reduce type 1 diabetes progression, restore normoglycemia in mice

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Nanoparticles coated with peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC-NP) can successfully reverse diabetes in a mouse model of the disease, with research suggesting that this approach could be used against other autoimmune diseases, according to a study published online April 8 in Immunity.

Sue Tsai, of the University of Calgary in Canada, and colleagues write that the "nanovaccine" reduced type 1 diabetes progression in mice with pre-diabetes, and restored normoglycemia in mice with diabetes.

The researchers found that the use of these nanoparticles boosted T cells that counteract more aggressive T cells that play a role in type 1 diabetes. The autoregulatory T cells that were expanded by the nanoparticles suppressed local presentation of autoantigens in a manner that was dependent on interferon- γ, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and perforin. When coated with human diabetes-relevant pHLA complexes, nanoparticles restored normoglycemia in a humanized model of diabetes.

"In sum, we have shown that progression of type 1 diabetes results in the generation of pools of antidiabetogenic memory-like autoregulatory CD8+ T cells that can be expanded by systemic delivery of pMHC-NPs. The unique properties of pMHC-coated NPs, coupled with current knowledge of antigenic specificities of autoreactive CD8+ cells in human type 1 diabetes, make this nanovaccine an attractive candidate for clinical testing. If the paradigm on which this nanovaccine is based held true in other chronic autoimmune diseases involving autoreactive CD8+ cells or is extended to autoregulatory CD4+ T cells, pMHC-nanovaccines might find general applicability in autoimmunity," the authors conclude.

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