Diabetes Increases Women's Risk of Hip Fracture
Study shows up to sevenfold risk in type 1 diabetics, up to threefold risk in type 2 diabetics
TUESDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Women with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of hip fracture, according to a study published in the July issue of Diabetes Care.
Mohsen Janghorbani, Ph.D., of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran, and colleagues studied 109,983 women who were enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study. After following the subjects through 2002, they identified 1,398 who had a hip fracture.
Compared with women without diabetes, the researchers found that the age-adjusted relative risk of hip fracture was 7.1 in women with type 1 diabetes and 1.7 in women with type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for body mass index, smoking, physical activity, menopausal status, daily intake of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and postmenopausal hormone use, they found a multivariate relative risk of 6.4 in women with type 1 diabetes and 2.2 in women with type 2 diabetes, which increased to 3.1 in women who had type 2 diabetes for 12 years or more.
"The mechanisms whereby diabetes exerts negative effects on fracture risk are not entirely clear," the authors state. "Putative mechanisms include lower bone mineral density, weight loss, metabolic acidosis, and hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes, whereas vision loss and neuropathy may be of greater importance in type 2 diabetes. The results of this study highlight the need for fracture-prevention strategies in women with diabetes."