Dandruff is the result of the body shedding dry and dead flakes of skin, forming white and yellow flakes on the hair. The epidermis, or outer layer, of the scalp replaces itself about every 27 days, but most of the time there simply aren’t enough flakes at one time for it to be noticeable.
Dandruff is in no way dangerous; it’s actually quite normal. But there is a social stigma attached to dandruff that makes people who experience it want to treat it and make it go away.
Some people have more of an issue with dandruff than others do. Those with psoriasis or hormonal dysfunction, for instance, may experience it more than others.
Treatment of Dandruff
Most of the time, regular shampooing washes away dandruff. But when dandruff becomes more noticeable, a shampoo designed specifically to treat dandruff is recommended. Special hair-styling products, such as mousses and gels, also may be of help. Over-the-counter options of these products are available, as are stronger formulations that require a doctor's prescription. Some stronger prescription shampoos are generally recommended for only occasional use, with regular shampoo used the rest of the time.
If dandruff doesn’t improve after two weeks, or if you notice other problems like unexpected hair loss, then it’s best to consult with a doctor for further treatment.
SOURCES: Hair Foundation; Children’s Physician Network