July 2011 Briefing - Emergency Medicine

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Emergency Medicine for July 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Baroreflex Activation Therapy Tied to Safe SBP Reduction

FRIDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) can safely reduce systolic blood pressure (SBP) over the long term in patients with resistant hypertension, according to a study published online July 28 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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CDC: U.S. Cholera Cases Linked to Hispaniola Epidemic

FRIDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- In the United States, cholera cases caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 are linked to travel to Hispaniola and consumption of seafood from Haiti, according to a report published online July 21 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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CDC: Nonfatal Sports and Recreation Heat Illness Studied

THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals who take part in unstructured sports and recreational activities, especially during the summer months, may be at an increased risk of heat illness, according to a report in the July 29 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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HbA1c Identifies Diabetes, Prediabetes in Acute Care

THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements can be used as a reliable screen for undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and dysglycemia in emergency settings, according to a study published online July 20 in Diabetes Care.

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FDA: Methylene Blue and Linezolid Tied to CNS Reactions

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has notified health care professionals and patients that individuals taking certain psychiatric medications may be at a higher risk of serious central nervous system (CNS) reactions when given reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), including methylene blue or linezolid (Zyvox).

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Hemolysis Products Impair Nitric Oxide Function on Infusion

MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- The products of hemolysis, which accumulate in blood stored under standard conditions, interact with nitric oxide (NO) on infusion and impair its vascular function, according to an experimental study published online July 11 in Circulation.

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FDA: Dronedarone Tied to Cardiovascular Events, Death

FRIDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has notified health care professionals and patients that dronedarone (Multaq) may be associated with an increased risk of death and adverse cardiovascular events, including stroke and hospitalization for heart failure.

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Being Married Linked to Earlier Care After Chest Pain

FRIDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Though married status is associated with lower odds of delayed medical care after chest pain, married men are significantly more likely to present earlier for care after myocardial infarction (MI) with chest pain, but married women show no such benefit, according to a study published online July 18 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Axial Neck Loading Linked to Sports-Related Spine Injury

FRIDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Sports-related cervical spine injuries can be produced by an axial loading of the neck, with the impact causing high peak linear and rotational acceleration of the head, according to a letter published in the July 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Disrupted Thalamic MRI Patterns in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns are disrupted, with significantly increased thalamic resting-state networks (RSNs) and reduced symmetry, according to a study published online July 20 in Radiology.

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CDC: Severe Hearing Loss in Military Veterans Studied

THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of severe hearing impairment (SHI) among veterans appears to be higher than among nonveterans, according to a report in the July 22 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Medical Students Support Right to Conscientious Objection

THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of medical students in the United Kingdom, especially Muslims, believe in the right of doctors to conscientiously object to or refuse any procedure, according to a study published online July 18 in the Journal of Medical Ethics.

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FDA Approves Vaccine for 2011/2012 Influenza Season

TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that the agency has approved the influenza vaccine formulation for the 2011/2012 influenza season; this formulation will be used by the six manufacturers licensed to manufacture and distribute the vaccine in the United States.

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Low Health Literacy Linked to Poorer Health Outcomes

TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Limited health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes and reduced use of health care services, according to a review published in the July 19 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Increased Mortality for Isolated Rural Patients With COPD

TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) living in isolated rural areas have increased mortality from COPD exacerbations compared to those living in urban areas, according to a study published in the July 19 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Children Safer in Car Crashes When Grandparents Driving

MONDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Children have a reduced risk of injury in crashes with grandparents as drivers than with parents, despite less optimal use of child restraint in grandparent-driver crashes, according to a study published online July 18 in Pediatrics.

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Clopidogrel, PPIs Linked to MI Risk After PCI

FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- In high-risk cardiovascular patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiac events, specifically myocardial infarction (MI), according to a study published online July 5 in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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CDC: Travelers to Haiti at Risk for Dengue Virus Infections

THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Travelers to Haiti may be at risk for infection with the mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (DENV), according to a report in the July 15 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Timely Surgery in Traumatic Brain Injury Halves Death Rate

THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), shorter time from emergency department (ED) arrival to surgery significantly lowers mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS), according to a study published in the July issue of the Journal of Emergency Nursing.

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Therapeutic Hypothermia Care Improves STEMI Outcomes

TUESDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- A comprehensive therapeutic hypothermia (TH) protocol integrated into regional ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treatment improves survival and neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), according to a study published in the July 12 issue of Circulation.

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Boostrix OK'd to Prevent Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis in Seniors

MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Approval for the Boostrix vaccine has been expanded by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to prevent tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough) in people 65 and older, the agency said in a news release.

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Increase in Staph Pneumonia in Children Mainly Due to MSRA

MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- The number of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) pneumonia cases in children increased between August 2001 and April 2009, with methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) responsible for 74 percent of the cases, according to a study published in the July issue of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.

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Combination Therapy for A-Fib Increases Bleeding Risk

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Combination antithrombotic therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of bleeding and no reduction in the risk of stroke, according to a study published in the July issue of Chest.

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Maternal Vaccination Tied to Fewer Flu Hospitalizations

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among infants aged less than 6 months, according to a study published in the June issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Nesiritide Has Small, Nonsignificant Effect on Dyspnea

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Use of nesiritide has a small, nonsignificant effect on dyspnea in patients with acute heart failure, and is not associated with changes in rates of death and rehospitalizations, according to a study published in the July 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Sudden Unexpected Death Risk Higher in Epilepsy

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with epilepsy have an increased risk of sudden death compared to the general population, with the most important risk factor being the frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), according to a review published online July 6 in The Lancet.

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Stroke Burden Shows Substantial Global Variation

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Stroke burden shows substantial global variation compared to ischemic heart disease (IHD), with countries with lower national income having disproportionately higher stroke death and disease burden than IHD, according to a study published online July 5 in Circulation.

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High Risk of Rereport in Child Abuse Cases

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- A large percentage of children who remain in the home following an abuse report are at an increased risk of rereports and reabuse, according to a study published online July 4 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Fewer Clinical Capabilities in Critical Access Rural Hospitals

TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Rural critical access hospitals (CAHs) have fewer clinical capabilities, significantly poorer performance on process measures, and higher 30-day mortality rates than non-CAHs for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure, and pneumonia, according to a study published in the July 6 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Increasing Incidence of U.S. In-Hospital Cardiac Arrests

TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Approximately 200,000 patients are treated for in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) annually in the United States, according to a study published online June 23 in Critical Care Medicine.

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Memory Blackouts Predictive of Alcohol-Related Injury

MONDAY, July 4 (HealthDay News) -- A significant increase in alcohol-related injury (ARI) is seen in college drinkers who have memory blackout, with those suffering from more blackouts having a higher likelihood of ARI, according to a study published online June 27 in Injury Prevention.

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Underage Men Drink More During Holiday Weekend

FRIDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- There are an increased number of visits to hospital emergency departments for alcohol-related events over the fourth of July weekend, with young men at a higher risk than women, according to a study published on June 30 by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

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