Myopia is a common eye disorder that's usually referred to as nearsightedness. When someone has myopia, objects that are close by tend to be seen clearly, whereas things farther away are blurry.
Causes of Myopia
Myopia appears to be hereditary because someone has a greater chance of having it if one or both parents have it. There's also some evidence that doing a lot of work close up, such as in an office setting, can contribute to myopia. Some people may experience myopia only at night, which is appropriately called night myopia. This may be related to the lack of light putting additional stress on the eyes.
Most people develop myopia in their childhood years, with the problem progressing until around age 20, when it tends to stabilize. However, some people develop myopia later in life because of a circulation issue. This type of myopia is often a complication of diabetes.
Doctors employ various approaches to treat myopia and correct the vision problems related to it. The most common approach is with prescription eyeglasses or contact lenses that correct the vision. Another option for some people is orthokeratology, or corneal refractive therapy, which involves wearing hard contact lenses for a period of time each day. These hard lenses actually reshape the cornea in order to correct myopia.
Many people with myopia are also candidates for laser surgery, which uses a laser to reshape the cornea and correct vision. Also, some with mild myopia may be able to improve their vision through vision therapy, which involves a series of eye exercises that help strengthen the eye and improve its focusing ability.
SOURCES: American Optometric Association