August 2006 Briefing - Family Practice

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Family Practice for August 2006. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Vaccination Infrequent Among Patients with IBD

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), treatment with long-term immunosuppressive therapies increases the risk of vaccine-preventable illnesses, but immunization against these illnesses is uncommon, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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New Diagnostic Model Predicts Coronary Artery Disease

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- In heart failure patients with left ventricular dysfunction, a new diagnostic model may provide an accurate baseline assessment of coronary artery disease and reduce the need for invasive tests, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Heart Journal.

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Genome Mapping Links Region to Prostate Cancer in Blacks

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified a region on chromosome 8q24 that is significantly associated with prostate cancer risk in African American men, according to a study published online Aug. 31 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

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Incidence Declines in Two AIDS-Related Cancers

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART, has resulted in a dramatic decline in incidence of two major AIDS-related cancers: Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a study published in the August issue of AIDS.

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Diabetic Foot Disease Outcome Measures Compared

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with diabetic foot disease, ulcer-related outcome measures may underestimate true morbidity and mortality. To improve disease management, greater emphasis should be placed on patient-related outcome measures, according to a study published in the August issue of Diabetes Care.

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Polycystic Ovarian Changes Common in Type 2 Diabetes

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- In premenopausal women with type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary is common but polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is not, according to a paper in the August issue of Fertility and Sterility.

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Daily Moist Cough Most Useful for Determining Cough Cause

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Children who have a chronic moist cough provide clinicians with the best clues for diagnosing the cause of the cough, researchers report in the August issue of Thorax.

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Low Inhibin B Levels Linked to Male Infertility

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- The dimeric hormone inhibin B may be a more sensitive marker of spermatogenesis than follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone, according to a study published in the August issue of Fertility and Sterility.

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Medical Costs Rising Faster Than Survival for Elderly

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Life expectancy for newborns has increased by about seven years since 1960, but medical costs per year of life gained are increasing faster than life expectancy for the elderly, according to a report published in the Aug. 31 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Rat Sperm Developed in Mice Produces Healthy Pups

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have produced normal and fertile rats using rat sperm produced in mice, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

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Night-Eating Syndrome Complicates Diabetes Care

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with diabetes, night-eating syndrome may lead to adverse outcomes, according to a report published in the August issue of Diabetes Care.

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Type 2 Diabetics Benefit from Low-Fat Vegan Diet

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Although patients with type 2 diabetes benefit from either a low-fat vegan diet or the American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet, those who adopt a vegan diet may expect to see significantly better outcomes, according to a study published in the August issue of Diabetes Care.

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Follicular Progesterone Linked to Early Pregnancy Loss

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Elevated follicular progesterone is associated with early pregnancy loss after natural conceptions in healthy women, according to a study published in the August issue of Fertility and Sterility.

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Ovarian Hyperstimulation Not an Endometriosis Risk

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- In women treated with assisted reproductive technology, the temporary exposure to high estrogen levels during ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization does not appear to be a significant risk factor for endometriosis recurrence, according to a study published in the August issue of Fertility and Sterility.

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Bleomycin Tattooing Is Promising Scar Treatment

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- In the treatment of patients with large keloids and hypertrophic scars, bleomycin tattooing may produce better results than standard cryotherapy with intralesional triamcinolon injection, according to a study published in the August issue of Dermatologic Surgery.

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Shorter Survival for Obese Ovarian Cancer Patients

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight or obesity in women with advanced ovarian tumors is associated with a shorter time to recurrence and shorter overall survival, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in Cancer.

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High-Calcium Mineral Waters Effective Way to Boost Intake

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Bottled mineral waters enriched with added calcium may be a useful means to boost intake of the mineral, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Statins May Adversely Interact with Clopidogrel

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- In patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention and are prescribed clopidogrel, the concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors, particularly atorvastatin, may be associated with a higher risk of adverse events. But the clinical significance of these possible drug interactions is unclear and warrants further study, according to the results of an observational study published in the August issue of the American Heart Journal.

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Neurotransmitter Levels Predict Post-Traumatic Stress

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Blood levels of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, in trauma patients may predict the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), according to the results of a study of car-accident victims published in the August issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.

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Triple Prediction Test May Rule Out Heart Attack

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- In patients who present to emergency departments within three hours of the onset of chest pain, a triple prediction test of a non-diagnostic electrocardiogram, negative troponin and negative ischemia-modified albumin measured may rule out acute coronary syndromes and allow for early dispositions instead of prolonged evaluations, but is not yet recommended for routine practice, according to an article in the August issue of the American Heart Journal.

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CD4 Count Moderately Predicts Undetectable HIV Viral Load

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- After HIV-positive patients start highly active antiretroviral therapy, an increased CD4 cell count is only a moderate predictor of undetectable viral load and its predictive power is even more limited in patients with lower baseline CD4 cell counts, according to a study published in the August issue of AIDS.

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Doctors' Judgment Validated in Treating Heart Disease

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors really do know best when it comes to prescribing the most beneficial treatments for patients with coronary artery disease, according to research published online Aug. 29 by the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Pre-Meal Insulin Glulisine Beneficial for Type 1 Diabetics

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with type 1 diabetes, a new rapid-acting insulin analog -- insulin glulisine -- may provide better blood glucose control than regular human insulin when administered immediately before a meal, according to a study published in the August issue of Diabetes Care.

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Nephropathy Less Likely With Isosmolar Contrast Media

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Isosmolar contrast media iodixanol is associated with a significantly lower risk of contrast-induced nephropathy than low-osmolar contrast media, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Pneumoconiosis Found in Virginia Coal Miners

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has identified 11 cases of severe pneumoconiosis among coal miners in Lee and Wise counties in Virginia, twice the number of cases that would be expected based on permissible levels of exposure to coal mine dust, according to a report published Aug. 25 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Gene Linked to Preterm Birth in African Americans

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- A specific polymorphism in the SERPINH1 gene is found more often in people of African ancestry and is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in expectant mothers, according to a report published online Aug. 28 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

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Longer Work Hours Can Be a Risk Factor for Hypertension

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News -- Working for more than 51 hours a week increases the likelihood of self-reported hypertension by almost one-third compared with those who put in 11 to 39 hours per week, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in Hypertension.

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Estrogenic Chemical Retains Carcinogenic Properties

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The estrogen-like chemical bisphenol A, a plasticizer that may be found in food packaging and dental sealants, may retain its carcinogenic properties even after being modified by body processes, according to a study in the August issue of Chemistry & Biology.

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Mortality Decreasing in Adolescents with Anorexia

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Among Swedish adolescents who are hospitalized for anorexia nervosa, mortality has significantly decreased since the late 1970s, according to a brief report published in the August issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.

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Gene Variants Associated with Macular Degeneration

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified variants of the complement factor H (CFH) gene that influence the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration but do not affect the protein sequence, according to two studies published online Aug. 27 in Nature Genetics.

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Racial Disparity Seen in Kidney Cancer Survival

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Even in clinical trials where patients have similar characteristics and receive the same treatments, blacks with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have a significantly shorter survival time than their white counterparts, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of Urology.

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Left Ventricular Mass Index Increases After Heart Attack

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Left ventricular mass index often increases after a first ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and successful reperfusion, but it does not affect infarct size or short-term survival, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Heart Journal.

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Sleep and Health Often Disrupted in Depressed Elders

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults with a history of depression are more likely to show impairments in sleep quality and health functioning, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Non-Western Pregnant Women in Netherlands Lack Vitamin D

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among pregnant non-Western women living in the Netherlands, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Five Percent of Violent Crimes Caused by Severely Mentally Ill

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with severe mental illnesses may commit as many as one in 20 violent crimes, although the criminals vary by gender and age, according to a report in the August issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.

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Home Health, Hospice Usage Assessed in Older Patients

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Older cancer patients are significantly more likely to use home health services or hospice services than older non-cancer patients, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Chemical Chaperones Correct Type 2 Diabetes in Mice

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Drugs that help proteins fold correctly, called chemical chaperones, can correct insulin resistance in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes and may be able to do the same in humans, according to a report in the Aug. 25 issue of Science.

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GERD Patients Swallow More Air Than Healthy Patients

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Although air swallowing and belching are more common in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), they don't cause increased acid reflux, according to a study in the August issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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HIV, Hepatitis C Co-Infection Worsens Cognitive Function

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) may have significantly greater neurocognitive declines than patients infected with HIV alone, although these differences largely disappear after antiretroviral treatment, according to a study in the Aug. 1 issue of AIDS.

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Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness Hikes Respiratory Disease Risk

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- In asymptomatic patients, bronchial hyperresponsiveness is associated with reduced airflow and an increased risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to the results of a study published in the August issue of Thorax.

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Early Mycophenolate Mofetil Treatment Improves Alveolitis

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Early treatment with mycophenolate mofetil coupled with low-dose corticosteroids may be a safe and effective alternative to cyclophosphamide in patients with recently diagnosed diffuse scleroderma-associated alveolitis, according to a study published in the August issue of Rheumatology.

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Botox Injections May Reduce Facial Scarring

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Botox may enhance facial wound healing and improve the appearance of scars, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Acral Melanoma Masquerades As Warts

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Dermoscopic examinations help make the correct diagnosis of acral melanomas that masquerade as atypical acral lesions, according to a study published in the August issue of Dermatologic Surgery.

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Non-H. Pylori Bacteria Found in Hypochlorhydric Patients

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Hypochlorhydric patients may harbor strains of non-Helicobacter pylori organisms that produce urease, which can lead to false-positive breath tests and rapid urease tests, according to the results of a small study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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Over-the-Counter Sales of Plan B Approved

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced on Aug. 24 that it has approved over-the-counter sales of the emergency contraceptive Plan B, also known as the "morning-after pill," to women ages 18 and older. But Plan B will continue to be a prescription-only product for women ages 17 and under.

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Elderly Waist-to-Hip Ratio Best Weight Guideline

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The ratio of waist-to-hips is a better guideline to optimal weight in those aged 75 and over, rather than body mass index, or BMI, which overestimates the risks of weight-related mortality, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Childhood Allergies More Prevalent Worldwide

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of childhood allergies has increased worldwide since 1991, especially in children ages 6 to 7, according to a study published in the Aug. 26 issue of The Lancet.

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FDA Proposes Electronic Registration of All U.S. Drugs

THURSDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- In its ongoing drive to modernize health data management, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed a new rule on Aug. 23 that would require drug companies to register themselves and their products electronically.

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Inflammatory Markers Linked to Metabolic Syndrome

THURSDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- In patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, markers of inflammation and fibrinolysis associated with cardiovascular morbidity are strongly associated with the number of components of metabolic syndrome, according to a study published in the August issue of Diabetes.

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Optical Radiation Can Stimulate Auditory Nerves

THURSDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- The auditory nerve can be stimulated using optical radiation, a discovery that has potential clinical implications for cochlear implants, according to a study published online July 26 in Lasers in Surgery and Medicine.

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Mortality Linked to BMI in Two National Cohort Studies

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Two trials, one involving more than 500,000 Americans and the other over one million Koreans, suggest that even modest amounts of excess weight in middle age is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Results of both studies are published in the Aug. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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TGFBR1 and 2 Mutations Cause Aggressive Vascular Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Mutations in the transforming growth factor beta receptors 1 and 2 (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), associated with the recently described autosomal dominant disease Loeys-Dietz syndrome, can cause aggressive and widespread vascular disease, according to a report in the Aug. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Support Surfaces, Supplements May Prevent Bed Sores

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Use of support surfaces, repositioning patients, optimizing nutritional status and moisturizing sacral skin may be appropriate strategies to prevent pressure ulcers, according to the results of a systematic review published in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Lifestyle Benefits Seen From Sinus Rhythm Restoration

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- While restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm may not confer survival benefits in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation, it does improve exercise performance and quality of life, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Two Anti-Clotting Regimens Have Similar Effectiveness

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with acute venous thromboembolism, fixed-dose subcutaneous unfractionated heparin is as effective and safe as subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin, but is far less costly, according to a study in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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U.S. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Decreasing

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- The seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the primary cause of genital herpes, has significantly declined since the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United States, especially among teenagers, according to a study in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Metabolic Disorder More Common Than Thought

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is a more common metabolic disorder than previously recognized, but is not currently suitable for inclusion in newborn screening programs, according to a study in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Intense End-of-Life Care Less Common in Rural Residents

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Rural nursing home residents are less likely to use the most intensive medical services at the end of their lives compared with their urban counterparts, according to a study in the August issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Air, Car, Bus or Train Travel Linked to Thrombosis Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Long trips by air, car, bus or train are associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of developing deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in the following weeks, according to a study in the August issue of PLoS Medicine.

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Ethnic Differences Observed in Stroke Recurrence

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Mexican-Americans who experience a first ischemic stroke have a higher risk of stroke recurrence than their non-Hispanic white counterparts, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Insulin Resistance at 13 May Predict Future Heart Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Reducing insulin resistance in teens, along with their weight, may be necessary to decrease their risk of cardiovascular disease, according to the results of a study published online Aug. 21 in Hypertension.

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Cognitive Performance Linked to Risk of Falls in Elderly

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Among very elderly patients, there is an association between cognitive performance and risk of falls, according to a study in the August issue of the Journal of the American Geriatric Society.

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Lipid Levels Rise More Than Thought After Acne Treatment

MONDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- About 40 percent of patients taking isotretinoin to treat acne develop elevated triglycerides and about 30 percent develop high cholesterol, higher than previous estimates but transient and reversible in most cases, according to a study in the August issue of Archives of Dermatology.

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Vascular Disease Uncommon in Supercentenarians

MONDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Supercentenarians do not often have vascular disease, or if they do, it develops very late in their already long lives, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Geriatric Society.

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Drug Promotion for Off-Label Gabapentin Examined

MONDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Advisory boards, continuing medical education, influential physicians, and sponsorship of research and publications were used in the marketing and promotion of gabapentin (Neurontin), particularly to encourage off-label prescribing, according to a report in the Aug. 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Illegal Blood Alcohol Levels Doubled Over Four Years

MONDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- The number of patients in northern Ireland with blood alcohol levels that far exceeded the legal limit when admitted to emergency department increased 113 percent over a four-year period, according to a study published in the September issue of the Emergency Medicine Journal.

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BMI Does Not Accurately Forecast Heart Disease Death

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Body mass index does not dependably forecast heart disease mortality, most likely because it cannot differentiate between muscle mass and fat, researchers report in the Aug. 19 issue of The Lancet.

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All Forms of Tobacco Raise Myocardial Infarction Risk

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- All forms of tobacco consumption, not just smoking, substantially raise the risk of myocardial infarction, according to the results of a global study published in the Aug. 19 issue of The Lancet.

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Rate of Post-Traumatic Stress Among Vietnam Vets Revised

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- A reassessment of rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Vietnam veterans suggests that the lifetime rate of war-related PTSD is 18.7 percent, in between previous estimates of 30.9 percent and 14.7 percent, according to a report in the Aug. 18 issue of Science.

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China's One-Child Policy Has Led to Gender Imbalance

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- China's one-child family policy has resulted in a reduction in the country's total birth rate and in family size, but the country is also experiencing a huge imbalance in the ratio of male to female births, according to research published in the Aug. 19 issue of BMJ.

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Watching TV Has Analgesic Effect in Children

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Watching TV is a better analgesic for children undergoing venipuncture than active distraction by mothers, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Finasteride May Improve Sensitivity of PSA Test

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Results from the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test are more accurate among men who are being treated with the drug finasteride, according to a study published in the Aug. 16 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Americans Support Better Coordination of Health Care

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Survey results suggest that Americans strongly support better coordination of health care and that rising medical costs are a serious concern for many low- and middle-income people. The survey, conducted on behalf of The Commonwealth Fund, also found that many people support fundamental changes or a complete rebuilding of the health care system.

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Socioeconomic Status Linked to Late-Life Disability

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- While the link between extreme poverty and poor health has long been recognized, a new report in the Aug. 17 New England Journal of Medicine extends the socioeconomic disparity to functional limitation and disability later in life.

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Light-at-Night Study Produces Inconsistent Results

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Evidence is mixed in support of the light-at-night hypothesis, which proposes that exposure to artificial lighting at night could increase women's breast cancer risk by suppressing the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin, according to a study in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

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Smoking Cessation Drug Has Gone Unnoticed in West

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Nicotine receptor agonist cytisine, a drug that has been used for the past 40 years in Eastern Europe as an aid to smoking cessation, has been largely ignored by the English-language journals, according to a review and meta-analysis in the Aug. 14/28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Varenicline Tartrate Helps Smokers Kick the Habit

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Varenicline tartrate (Chantix) can help smokers kick the habit, according to two studies in the Aug. 14/28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved varenicline in May 2006.

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Most ED Patients with S. Aureus Infection Have MRSA

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, is the most common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections in patients presenting to emergency departments in 11 U.S. cities, according to a study conducted in August 2004 and reported in the Aug. 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Bisphosphonate Adherence Reduces Fracture Risk

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Fracture risk is significantly lower in women who adhere to bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis compared to those who do not, according to a study published in the August issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Lower Overall Mortality Seen in Breast-Implant Patients

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Women with breast implants have lower overall mortality but higher suicide rates compared to the general population, according to the results of a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

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Leptin May Inhibit Uterine Contractility

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- High leptin levels in overweight and obese pregnant women may inhibit uterine contractility and help explain why such women are more likely to have unsuccessful vaginal deliveries and a high rate of Caesarean sections, according to the results of an in vitro study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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An 18-Hole Round of Golf Equals 10,000 Steps

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Playing an 18-hole round of golf may help people meet the recommendation that they accumulate 10,000 steps each day as part of a general physical activity plan, according to a study published in the August issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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No Cardiovascular Risk Seen in Younger Pot Smokers

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- In young adults, marijuana use is not independently associated with increased body mass index and other cardiovascular risk factors. But it is strongly associated with other unhealthy behaviors, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Cardiology.

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High Dietary Copper Linked to Faster Cognitive Decline

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Elderly individuals who consume 1.6 mg or more of copper per day and whose diets are high in saturated and trans fats have a faster rate of cognitive decline than other patients, according to a report in the August issue of the Archives of Neurology.

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Disordered Sleep Impairs Truck Drivers' Performance

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Severe sleep apnea or sleeping less than five hours a night may significantly impair commercial truck drivers' on-the-job performance and could be major factors in truck crashes that kill 5,600 people in the United States each year, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Doctors' Views on Disclosure of Errors Varies Widely

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- There is a wide variation across the medical profession when it comes to disclosing medical errors to patients, with the visibility of the error and medical specialty both playing a role, according to two studies in the August 14/28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Cup of Coffee Associated with Myocardial Infarction Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of having a myocardial infarction within one hour of consuming coffee is greater in patients with coronary heart disease risk factors, a sedentary lifestyle or who consume one cup of coffee or less per day compared to other patients, according to a report published online Aug. 15 in Epidemiology.

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Effect of Financial Incentives on Quality of Care Unclear

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Studies examining the effect of financial incentives on quality of health care have shown mixed results, and ongoing monitoring of these programs is essential to determine their effectiveness, according to a report in the Aug. 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Low Testosterone Level Raises Mortality Risk for Men

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Men with low levels of testosterone after the age of 40 are at higher risk of death than their counterparts with normal levels of the hormone, according to a study published in the August 14/28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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AHA Issues Statement on Physical Activity in Schools

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Schools must take the lead in promoting adequate physical activity for children during the school day, according to a scientific statement published online Aug. 14 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Women Under-Report Breast Cancer on Their Paternal Side

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Women may be more likely to report a family history of breast cancer on their maternal side than on their paternal side, suggesting that self-reported family history of the disease may be suboptimal, according to a report published in the September issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Never-Married People Tend to Die Earlier Than Others

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- People who have never been married are more likely to have premature mortality compared with married people, with a nearly fivefold higher risk of dying from infection, according to a study in the September issue of the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

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Hib Vaccine Cuts Childhood Disease in Kenya

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine into the routine infant immunization program in Kenya has dramatically reduced disease incidence in young children, according to a report in the Aug. 9 Journal of the American Medical Association.

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U.K. Drug Trial Disaster Sheds New Light on Cytokine Storm

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- The severe adverse reaction of six healthy volunteers in the United Kingdom during a phase 1 drug trial of TGN1412 sheds new light on the natural course of the cytokine storm and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and must not prevent future research, according to a paper and editorial published online Aug. 14 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Fewer U.S. Students Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of sexual experience dropped to 46.8 percent from 54.1 percent among U.S. high school students between 1991 and 2005, according to a report in the Aug. 11 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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About Four Percent of Teens Have Traded Sex for Money

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- About four percent of U.S. adolescents have traded sex for money or drugs, possibly leading to health problems such as depression or sexually transmitted infections, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.

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Teens Often Use Condoms Incorrectly

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Teens who use condoms often fail to use them correctly, applying them too late or removing them too early, according to a U.K. study published online Aug. 10 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.

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ACE Inhibitors May Help Atherosclerosis Patients

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, used to treat patients with heart failure or left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), may benefit patients with atherosclerosis, according to a study published in the Aug. 12 issue of The Lancet.

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FDA Orders Three Firms to Halt Unapproved Inhaled Drugs

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has warned three firms to cease manufacture and distribution of unapproved inhalation drugs, which it says are not subject to FDA review for safety and effectiveness, and do not fit the traditional definition of the practice of pharmacy compounding.

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Woman Damages Vision After Prednisolone Self-Treatment

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A 64-year-old woman who self-diagnosed myalgic encephalomyelitis permanently damaged her eyesight as a result of four years of therapy with oral prednisolone, purchased from an online pharmacy based in Thailand, according to a report published in the Aug. 12 issue of The Lancet.

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Clinicians May Under-Diagnose Occupational Asthma

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- In assessing newly diagnosed adult asthma, clinicians are likely to take incomplete occupational histories, which may result in an under-diagnosis of occupational asthma, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of Chest.

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FDA Approves First Generic Version of Effexor

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted approval to TEVA Pharmaceuticals USA to manufacture a generic version of Effexor (venlafaxine), which is widely used in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

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CPR Knowledge is Lacking in Seriously Ill Patients

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Seriously ill hospitalized patients lack information about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and more than one-third of them do not wish to discuss end-of-life preferences with their physician, according to study results published in the August issue of Chest.

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America's Oldest Citizens Are Content with Their Lives

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- A majority of Americans who are older than 99 report being satisfied with their life choices, and more attribute their longevity to spirituality and faith than genes or medical care, according to a survey by the Evercare unit of UnitedHealth Group.

Lawn Mowers Important Cause of Childhood Injury

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Lawn mowers are a significant source of childhood injury, which may be avoided by improvements in lawn mower design incorporating passive protection, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of Pediatrics.

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Advancing Age Linked to Rotator Cuff Tears

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Increasing age is associated with the development of either partial or full-thickness rotator cuff tears, and patients who present with symptomatic unilateral rotator cuff disease often have bilateral disease, according to a study in the August issue of the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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One in Four U.S. Preschoolers Overweight or At Risk

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of being overweight or at risk for being overweight is rising in U.S. children and infants, according to the results of a 22-year analysis of preschoolers published in the July issue of Obesity.

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Cigarette Smoke Saturates Brain Acetylcholine Receptors

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Typical daily smokers show nearly complete saturation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2 nAChR) in the brain throughout the day, according to a study in the August issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Children on Antidepressants More Likely to Attempt Suicide

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Children and teens, but not adults, who take antidepressants are more likely to attempt and complete suicide, concludes a new study in the August issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry. The findings support a recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration warning about risk of suicide among children and teens taking antidepressants.

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Children Under 5 Most Likely to Get Hurt on Escalators

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Children younger than 5 years of age are more likely than their older counterparts to sustain escalator-related injuries and more likely to suffer injuries to the hand when entrapped, according to a study in the August issue of Pediatrics.

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Younger, Older Teens View Pregnancy Differently

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Younger teens view pregnancy differently than older teens, with more of the former believing a baby can enhance relationships, but also more inclined to expect upheaval, according to a report in the August issue of Pediatrics.

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Ketamine Infusion Can Relieve Depression in Two Hours

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- A single infusion of the anesthetic ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, can relieve the symptoms of treatment-resistant, major depression within two hours and the effect may last up to a week, according to the results of a randomized study published in the August issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Socially Isolated Children May Become Unhealthy Adults

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- People who are socially isolated as children have a more than twofold higher risk of being unhealthy as young adults, even after taking into account established risk factors and unhealthy behaviors, according to a study in the August issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Low Vaccine Rates Among Amish Linked to Pertussis

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis still occur in populations where vaccine rates are low, especially isolated communities such as the Amish, according to a report in the Aug. 4 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Ghrelin Vaccines Reduce Weight Gain in Rats

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have developed a vaccine that can slow weight gain in rats by targeting ghrelin and decreasing feeding efficiency, according to a report published online Aug. 4 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

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Violent Video Games Desensitize to Real Violence

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Playing violent video games for as little as 20 minutes can desensitize people to real-life violence, according to a report published online July 17 in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

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FDA Approves Next Season's Influenza Vaccine

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved this year's seasonal influenza vaccines. The vaccines include the new strains of virus judged likely to cause flu in the Northern Hemisphere in 2006-2007.

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Health Benefits Seen in Low-Energy-Density Diets

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who eat a low-energy-density diet consume more food, take in fewer calories and have a healthier diet than people who eat richer diets, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

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Bone Marrow Lesions in the Knee Often Inherited

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Bone marrow lesions in the knee have a significant genetic component and commonly coexist with chondral defects and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA), according to a study published online Aug. 3 in Arthritis Research & Therapy.

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Female Life Scientists Less Likely to Hold Patents

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Female life-science faculty members patent their work at about 40 percent of the rate of their male counterparts, but the gender gap is improving, according to a study published in the Aug. 4 edition of Science.

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Pediatrics Gave British Women a Foothold in Medicine

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- British women gained access to the medical profession in the 19th and early 20th centuries by establishing a foothold in pediatrics, which was a relatively new and low-paying specialty at the time, according to a report published online Aug. 3 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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High Intake of Processed Meat Linked to Stomach Cancer

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- High consumption of processed meat may be associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer, according to a study published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Longer Needles Cut Local Reactions to Infant Vaccines

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Infants immunized with 25-mm needles have less adverse reactions to immunization and achieve comparable immunogenicity to that of the more commonly used 16-mm needles, according to a study published online Aug. 4 in BMJ.

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Severe Sleep Apnea in Elderly Doubles Stroke Risk

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Elderly patients with severe sleep apnea have more than twice the risk of ischemic stroke compared to their counterparts with only mild or no apnea, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in Stroke.

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Vascular-Measuring Risk Score Helps Predict Dementia

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- A new risk prediction method that highlights the role of vascular factors in the development of dementia may help identify at-risk individuals in need of intervention, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in The Lancet Neurology.

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Hyponatremia Risk Low with Oral Rehydration Solution

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- A reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) recommended in 2002 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to treat diarrhea is 50 percent less likely than an older formulation to cause hyponatremia, according to a study published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Breast-Fed Babies Respond Better to Stress in Later Life

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Children who were breast-fed as babies respond better than their counterparts who were not breast-fed to psychosocial stresses later in life, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Lessons Learned from the 2005 Indiana Measles Outbreak

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Important lessons can be learned from a 2005 measles outbreak in Indiana that can help sustain the elimination of this disease in the United States, according to a case series investigation in the Aug. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Criteria Can Help Determine If Resuscitation Should Stop

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- A clinical prediction rule for the termination of resuscitation can help emergency medical technicians to decide when to stop basic life support resuscitative efforts in patients with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, according to a study published in the Aug. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Switch to Sulfonylurea Benefits Some Diabetics

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with diabetes caused by KCNJ11 mutations, short-term sulfonylurea therapy is safe and probably more effective than insulin therapy, according to a study published in the Aug. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Small Group of Physicians Are Frequent Expert Witnesses

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- In most neurologic birth injury lawsuits, a small group of physicians act as frequent expert witnesses, and plaintiff witnesses tend to have fewer publications and are less likely to have subspecialty board certification than defendant witnesses, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Children's Diets Deteriorate Between Ages Two and Eight

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Children's adherence to new U.S. Department of Agriculture food group guidelines decreases as they grow older, according to a report in the August issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

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Primary Care Physicians May Miss Chronic Kidney Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Many primary care physicians (PCPs) may not properly diagnose and refer patients with chronic kidney disease, according to a study in the August issue of the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, in which "mock" patients' symptoms were presented for diagnosis.

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Domestic Violence Screening Accuracy Varies by Method

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Screening methods for intimate partner violence vary by accuracy, completeness and acceptability, according to a report published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Participants were least accepting of the face-to-face approach.

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Lack of Weight Gain May Predict Tuberculosis Relapse

TUESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Underweight tuberculosis patients who regain less than 5 percent of their weight during the first two months of intensive therapy are significantly more likely to relapse, according to a study in the August issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Racial Disparities Seen in U.S. Medical Insurance Coverage

TUESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Among working-age adults in the United States, Hispanics and blacks are more likely than whites to have gaps in their insurance coverage, not receive necessary care and face medical debt, according to a report published Aug. 1 by The Commonwealth Fund.

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Steep Lung Function Decline Seen in Ground Zero Workers

TUESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- During the first year after the collapse of the World Trade Center, pulmonary function decreased by an equivalent of 12 years of normal aging among Fire Department of New York City (FDNY) rescue workers who were exposed to its dust, according to a study in the August issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Tool Estimates Portion Size of Wedge-Shaped Foods

TUESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- An adjustable wedge is more accurate than a ruler in estimating the portion size of wedge-shaped foods such as cake and pizza in about one-third of cases, although substantial misestimation still occurs, according to a report in the August issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

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FDA Says It Will Work Towards OTC Status for Plan B

TUESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced that it is moving towards resolving policy issues that have kept the emergency contraception Plan B from over-the-counter (OTC) sales for several years.

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Higher Blood Pressure Seen in Kidney Donors

TUESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Kidney donors may experience a higher blood pressure increase in the five to 10 years following donation than would be expected with normal aging, according to a meta-analysis published in the Aug. 1 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Physician's Briefing