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August 2012 Briefing - Family Practice

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Family Practice for August 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

HbA1c ≥6.5 Percent Is Specific, Not Sensitive for T1DM

FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Using a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) threshold of ≥6.5 percent is a specific but not sensitive early indicator of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in high-risk children and young adults, according to a study published in the September issue of Diabetes Care.

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Fructose and Sugar Substitutes Alter Gut Microbiota

FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- High consumption of fructose, artificial sweeteners, and sugar alcohols affect host-gastrointestinal microbe interactions and may contribute to the development of metabolic disorders and obesity, according to research published in the September issue of Obesity Reviews.

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Study Quantifies Effect of TV Viewing on Adolescent BMI

FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents, a decrease in television (TV) viewing time correlates with a lower body mass index (BMI) z score, according to a study published in the September/October issue of the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.

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Advanced-Stage Cancer Patients Often Reluctant to Exercise

FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals with advanced cancer, reluctance to participate in exercise may be due to symptoms, lack of specific guidance, and lack of recognition of the role of exercise in mitigating symptoms, according to a study published in the July issue of the Journal of Pain and Symptom Management.

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Factors Affecting Life Expectancy for Older Adults Studied

FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Even for adults aged 75 years and older, keeping up a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity and not smoking, is associated with increased life expectancy, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in BMJ.

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Preemie, Low Birth Weight Risk Up After Induced Abortions

FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Women who have had induced abortions (IAs) have an increased likelihood of having a very premature or low birth weight first baby, and the likelihood increases with each IA, according to research published online Aug. 29 in Human Reproduction.

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Effective Short-, Long-Term Weight-Loss Strategies Differ

FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- In postmenopausal women, some weight-loss strategies that are successful for the short-term are not effective or sustainable for long-term weight loss, according to a study published in the September issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

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Even Normal Range Albuminuria Ups Cardiovascular Risk

FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with type 2 diabetes with normal albumin levels, any degree of albuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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'Temper Loss' Model Defines Spectrum of Child Tantrums

FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- The "Temper Loss" model indicates that temper tantrums occur occasionally in most preschoolers, and differentiates between normative misbehavior and less frequent clinically concerning behavior, according to a study published online Aug. 29 in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

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Afinitor Disperz Approved for Rare Tumor

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Afinitor Disperz (everolimus tablets for oral suspension), the first form of the drug Afinitor to be created especially for children.

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Teen Vaccinations Found to Be Increasing As Recommended

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Since 2006, a year after the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices expanded the vaccination schedule for adolescents, vaccination coverage has increased, but vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) in females lags behind other routine vaccinations, according to research published in the Aug. 31 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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New Drug Approved for Irritable Bowel, Chronic Constipation

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Linzess (linaclotide) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat forms of chronic constipation that don't respond to traditional treatment, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) accompanied by constipation, the agency said Thursday in a news release.

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Little Evidence on Efficacy of Interventions in Autism

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders, few studies have assessed treatment approaches, and there is limited evidence available to support specific interventions, with most available studies of poor quality, according to a review published online Aug. 27 by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

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Human Whey Better Promotes Gut Bacteria Colonization

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Infant formulas may not support biofilm growth as effectively as human milk does, according to a study published in the August issue of Current Nutrition & Food Science.

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Only Female Gender Ups Stoke Risk in A-Fib Patients ≥75 Years

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), female gender increases the risk of stroke only in patients aged 75 years or older, according to a study presented at the annual European Society of Cardiology Congress, held from Aug. 25 to 29 in Munich.

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Resistance to Second-Line TB Drugs Is Common Globally

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of patients with tuberculosis in eight countries show resistance to at least one second-line drug, with previous treatment with second-line drugs strongly associated with resistance to these drugs and with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in The Lancet.

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Mites, Associated Bacteria Possibly Play Role in Rosacea

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- A role has been suggested for Demodex mites and their associated bacteria in rosacea, according to a study published online Aug. 29 in the Journal of Medical Microbiology.

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Nutrient Intake Reduces Sperm DNA Damage in Older Men

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Older men who consume higher amounts of certain micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc have less DNA damage to their sperm, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in Fertility and Sterility.

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Similar Rate of CV Events With Atenolol, Metoprolol Tartrate

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- There are no significant differences in the rates of incident myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, or stroke for patients with hypertension starting treatment with atenolol or metoprolol tartrate, according to a study published online Aug. 27 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Novel Pathogenic Virus Identified in Missouri

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- A novel pathogenic virus dubbed the Heartland virus, which is a member of the phlebovirus genus, has been identified in two patients from Missouri, according to a report published in the Aug. 30 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Cognitive Decline Worse for Women vs. Men in Alzheimer's

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Women with Alzheimer's disease consistently experience greater cognitive deterioration than men, according to results from a meta-analysis published Aug. 23 in the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology.

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Lung Cancer Risk Unaffected by Metformin Use in Diabetes

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with type 2 diabetes who take metformin do not have a reduced risk of lung cancer, in contrast to previous observational studies, according to a study published online Aug. 24 in Diabetes Care.

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Lower Prostate Cancer-Specific Death With Anticoagulant Use

THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Anticoagulant (AC) therapy, particularly aspirin, is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) among men treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT), according to a study published online Aug. 27 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Lacunar Stroke Outcomes No Better With Dual Antiplatelets

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Treating patients with recent lacunar strokes with dual antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel plus aspirin) is not associated with a reduction in the risk of recurrent stroke, and correlates with significant increases in the risk of major hemorrhage and death, according to research published in the Aug. 30 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Eating Chocolate May Lower Stroke Risk for Men

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- In men, moderate chocolate consumption on a regular basis may lower the risk of any type of stroke by about 17 to 19 percent, according to research published online Aug. 29 in Neurology.

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High Midlife Fitness Levels Linked to Healthier Old Age

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- High midlife fitness levels are significantly associated with a lower risk of developing chronic conditions later in life, according to a study published online Aug. 27 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Dual Effects Noted for Alcohol and Energy Drink Co-Ingestion

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Although consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) increases alertness and may negate some intoxication-related sedation effects, it can lead to negative physiological and psychological side effects associated with overstimulation, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.

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GI Pathogen at Lake Linked to Human Fecal Contamination

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Water at beaches along Lake Erie contains a pathogen associated with human fecal contamination, Arcobacter species, which are known to cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, and levels correlate with beach advisories, according to a study published in the August issue of Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

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Subclinical Atherosclerosis Noted in Diffuse Scleroderma

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc), without any clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, have indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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STEMI Mortality Down in France From 1995 to 2010

TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) mortality declined in France from 1995 to 2010 due to greater use of reperfusion therapy and early admission and medications as well as changes in patient characteristics, according to a study published online Aug. 27 in the Journal of the American Medical Association to coincide with presentation at the annual European Society of Cardiology Congress, held from Aug. 25 to 29 in Munich.

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Sleep Apnea Tied to Insulin Resistance in Young, Lean Men

TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- In healthy, lean, young men, the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) correlates with insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia to maintain normal glucose levels, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in Diabetes Care.

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Pharmacist-Led Intervention Benefits Knee Osteoarthritis

TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Community-based pharmacists can initiate a coordinated care strategy to better identify knee osteoarthritis (OA) and improve function, pain, and quality of life, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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New Diagnostic Definition of Myocardial Infarction Issued

TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- An updated universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) includes detection of a rise and/or fall in cardiac biomarker values, preferably cardiac troponin (cTn), according to a statement published online Aug. 26 in Circulation to coincide with presentation at the annual European Society of Cardiology Congress, held from Aug. 25 to 29 in Munich.

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Gabapentin Efficacious for Refractory Chronic Cough

TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with refractory chronic cough, treatment with gabapentin is associated with improved cough-specific quality of life and is well-tolerated, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in The Lancet.

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LABA Withdrawal Increases Asthma-Related Impairment

TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with asthma controlled with a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), withdrawal of the LABA once asthma is controlled correlates with increased asthma-associated impairment, according to a study published online Aug. 27 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Variation Noted in Pattern of Alcohol-Related Birth Defects

TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to alcohol early in pregnancy produces a pattern of facial and brain defects that can vary greatly depending on the time of exposure, according to an experimental study published online Aug. 22 in PLoS One.

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New Class of Drugs Shows Promise for Heart Failure

TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- After 12 weeks of treatment, the first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, LCZ696, lowers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to III heart failure and preserves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) significantly more than valsartan, according to a study published online Aug. 26 in The Lancet to coincide with presentation at the annual European Society of Cardiology Congress, held from Aug. 25 to 29 in Munich.

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Regular Aspirin Use Doesn't Reduce Breast Cancer Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Regular use of aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or acetaminophen does not appear to affect the risk of breast cancer overall or by specific subtypes in postmenopausal women, according to a study published online Aug. 27 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Teenage Pot Use Linked to Neuropsychological Decline

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Persistent marijuana use is associated with neuropsychological decline, with those who start regularly using marijuana as teenagers experiencing greater declines in neuropsychological function than those who start later, and function is not fully restored even if they eventually quit, according to a study published online Aug. 27 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Myeloperoxidase Marker of Inflammation in Obese Children

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- In obese prepubertal children, myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an early biomarker of inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in Diabetes Care.

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Effect of Maternal Eating Disorder on Perinatal Outcome Minimal

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women with current or past eating disorders have few adverse perinatal outcomes, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology.

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Obesity Up With Transition to Information-Based Society

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- The transition toward an information/knowledge-based society has increased the worldwide prevalence of obesity, according to a report, Waistlines of the World: The Effect of Information and Communications Technology on Obesity, published online Aug. 21 by the Milken Institute.

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Improved Survival for Prostate Cancer Seen in Post-PSA Era

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Overall survival for metastatic prostate cancer is significantly improved in a post-prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era trial compared with two trials conducted before the PSA era, according to research published online Aug. 23 in The Journal of Urology.

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AAP: Health Benefits of Male Circumcision Outweigh Risks

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- The health benefits of circumcision for newborn males outweigh the risks, according to a policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published online Aug. 27 in Pediatrics.

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Poor Survival for Obese Women With HR+ Breast Cancer

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Women with hormone receptor-positive operable breast cancer have reduced survival if they are obese, according to a study published online Aug. 27 in Cancer.

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Poorer Bone Health Seen in Black Children With Fractures

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- African-American children with forearm fractures are more likely to have vitamin D deficiency and lower bone mineral density than their peers without fractures, according to a study published online Aug. 27 in Pediatrics.

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Prasugrel, Clopidogrel Similar for Acute Coronary Syndromes

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who do not undergo revascularization, intensified platelet inhibition with prasugrel does not reduce the frequency of the primary end point (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and has similar risks of bleeding as clopidogrel, according to a study published online Aug. 26 in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with presentation at the annual European Society of Cardiology Congress, held from Aug. 25 to 29 in Munich.

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Mild Cognitive Decline in Nearly Half Lacunar Stroke Patients

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is present in nearly half of patients with lacunar stroke, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Updated Recommendations for Sleep Apnea in Children

MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is revising its recommendations for the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children and adolescents, according to a clinical practice guideline published online Aug. 27 in Pediatrics.

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In Type 2 DM, Proteinuria With SBP <130 Ups CVD Mortality

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with type 2 diabetes, proteinuria, and systolic blood pressure (BP) <130 mm Hg are at an increased risk of total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, suggesting that proteinuria should be taken into account when establishing target systolic BP levels for prevention of fatal CVD events, according to research published online Aug. 14 in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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Stress Causes Lower INR in VTE Patients Not on Blood Thinners

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- The effect of psychological distress on clotting times and clotting factors varies in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and depends on whether or not they are receiving oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy, according to a Swiss study published in the August issue of the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

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Claustrophobia Linked to Depression With Back Pain

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Claustrophobia is tied to higher rates of depression and psychological distress, but not disability, in back pain patients, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques.

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Anorexics Overestimate Own Body Size, but Not That of Others

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) tend to overestimate the size of their body but not the bodies of others, basing their weight and body dimensions on their pre-AN body dimensions, according to research published online Aug. 22 in PLoS One.

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Multidisciplinary Approach Cuts Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Multidisciplinary treatment adapted for women with low educational levels is superior to conventional pharmacotherapy in reducing key symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM), including sleep disturbances, catastrophizing, and psychological distress, according to research published online Aug. 16 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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New Model Explains How Lungs Clear Foreign Matter

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Mucus in the lungs clears foreign matter by moving along a brush-like periciliary layer rather than a watery layer, which keeps it from sticking to the airway surface, according to a study published in the Aug. 24 issue of Science.

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Smoking in Pregnancy Linked to Preschool Wheeze, Asthma

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Children who are exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy, but not in their first year of life, have an increased likelihood of developing wheeze and asthma at age 4 to 6 years, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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In Diabetes, Gastric Emptying Remains Stable Over Time

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Gastric emptying of solids and liquids and gastrointestinal symptoms remain stable over time in patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in Diabetes Care.

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Procedure Aids Severe, Rigid Scoliosis in Low-Weight Adults

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with severe and rigid scoliosis and low body weight, a two-stage vertebral column resection (VCR) procedure with posterior pedicle screw instrumentation can achieve good correction of scoliosis, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in The Spine Journal.

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Muscle-Related Statin Effects Seem to Correlate With Potency

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- The rates of muscle-related adverse effects (AEs) differ greatly for various statins, with the highest reported rates seen for rosuvastatin, according to research published online Aug. 22 in PLoS One.

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Depression Tied Negatively to Sexual Function in Pregnancy

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Depressive symptom scores negatively predict sexual function during pregnancy, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Journal of Sexual Medicine.

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OASIS Risk Up for Nulliparous Women With Vacuum Delivery

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- For women whose infants are delivered by vacuum extraction, the risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) is significantly higher among nulliparous women than multiparous women, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

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Outcomes Similar With Partial, Whole Breast Irradiation

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) yields five-year clinical outcomes and patterns of failure similar to those achieved with whole breast irradiation (WBI), with excellent three-year survival for women who develop an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), according to a study published in the Sept. 1 issue of Cancer.

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Melanoma Risk Declines With Self-Exams Plus Doctor Visit

FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Risk of deeper melanomas is reduced with self-examination of the skin one to 11 times a year, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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Sequencing Identifies Spread of Deadly Bacterial Outbreak

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- A drug-resistant bacterial strain that caused a serious outbreak resulting in deaths has been traced back to the original patient, and transmission patterns have been identified based on sequencing the genomes of the bacterial isolates, according to research published in the Aug. 22 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Study Casts Doubts on Brain Regions for Self-Awareness

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- The case of a self-aware man with extensive damage to brain regions thought to be critical for self-awareness suggests that a more diffuse brain network and other brain networks are involved, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in PLoS One.

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Neti Pots Linked to Deaths From Amebic Infection

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Two patients who died of an amebic infection had no history of freshwater exposure but had ameba in their household plumbing and used a nasal irrigation device for sinus problems, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Mortality Rates Down for Adult Trauma Patients in Last Decade

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- The mortality rate for adult patients admitted to trauma centers in Pennsylvania has declined over the past decade, according to research published in the August issue of the Archives of Surgery.

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Childhood Radiation Exposure of Pancreas Linked to Diabetes

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- There is a dose-response relationship between childhood radiation exposure of the pancreas and subsequent risk of diabetes, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Dual Action Antibody Reverses Menopausal Bone Loss

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- An antibody can reverse bone loss in menopausal mice by both blocking bone breakdown and stimulating bone formation, according to an experimental study published online Aug. 20 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Modifiable Risk Factors Key in Social Inequality of Diabetes

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Modifiable risk factors, particularly health behaviors and body mass index (BMI), measured repeatedly over time, account for about half of the socioeconomic differential observed in type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in BMJ.

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Reporting of Dietary Intake Methods in Obesity Trials Poor

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- More care needs to be taken in reporting dietary intake methods in childhood and adolescent obesity intervention trials in order to be able to better evaluate and replicate study methods, according to the results of a systematic review published online Aug. 15 in Obesity Reviews.

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Nearly Half of U.S. Physicians Have Symptoms of Burnout

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of all U.S. physicians report at least one symptom of burnout, with family, internal, and emergency medicine specialists reporting the highest rates of burnout, according to research published online Aug. 20 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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New Decision Aid for Treatment of Herniated Disc Beneficial

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- A new patient decision instrument meets the criteria of acceptability, reliability, and validity, and improves the quality of patient decision-making for treatment of a herniated disc, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of Spine.

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Racial Disparity ID'd in Health Behaviors of Fifth-Graders

THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Harmful health-related behaviors are more common among black and Latino fifth-graders than among white fifth-graders, according to a study published in the Aug. 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Tattoo Ink Found to Be Source of M. Chelonae Outbreak

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Premixed tattoo ink has been found to be the source of an outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae in 19 patients in Rochester, N.Y., according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Psychological Consequences Up for Spouses of MI Victims

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Spouses of individuals who have a sudden heart attack are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, and suicide, even if the individual survives, than spouses of those who experience other illnesses, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in the European Heart Journal.

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Bariatric Surgery Cuts Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Obese

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Bariatric surgery is very effective in reducing the long-term incidence of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals, according to a study published in the Aug. 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Opportunistic Infections Associated With Antibodies to IFN

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Neutralizing anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies are detected in most Asian adults with multiple opportunistic infections, according to a study published in the Aug. 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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De Novo Mutation Rate Higher in Children of Older Fathers

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Children of older fathers have a higher rate of new mutations, which may affect the risk of diseases such as autism and schizophrenia, according to a study published in the Aug. 23 issue of Nature.

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Infant Exposure to Antibiotics Linked to Later Obesity

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Infants exposed to antibiotics at younger than 6 months of age are at higher risk of being overweight in childhood, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in the International Journal of Obesity.

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Lower MI Risk With TNF Inhibitor Therapy for Psoriasis

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with psoriasis who are treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors have a significantly lower risk and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those who are treated with topical agents, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in the Archives of Dermatology.

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Low Back Pain Outcomes Not Improved by Early Imaging

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- For workers with low back pain, early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not associated with better health outcomes at one year, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of Spine.

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Fewer Circumcisions May Increase Infections and Costs

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- The reduced rate of neonatal male circumcision (MC) procedures performed in the United States is estimated to lead to increased infection prevalence and higher medical costs for men and women, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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T Cells Key in Atherosclerosis-Linked Inflammation

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, CD4+ T cells interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the presence of cognate antigen, leading to cell activation and proliferation and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, according to an experimental study published online Aug. 13 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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Low HDL Cholesterol Ups Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy, but not retinopathy, in patients with type 2 diabetes, according to research published online Aug. 13 in Diabetes Care.

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At-Home Diode Laser Effective for Permanent Hair Reduction

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Eight treatments with a home-use diode laser provide effective and safe permanent hair reduction one year after the last treatment, according to research published in the September issue of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine.

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Mindfulness Stress Reduction Reduces Loneliness in Elderly

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- An eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program reduces loneliness compared with a wait-list control, and also reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults, according to a study published online July 20 in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.

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Meta-Analysis Links Statins to Reduced Pancreatitis Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with normal or mildly elevated triglyceride levels, statin therapy correlates with a reduction in the risk of pancreatitis, according to a meta-analysis published in the Aug. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Drug-Eluting Stents Lead to Fewer Adverse Cardiac Events

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Among ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, the use of biolimus-eluting stents with biodegradable polymer results in a lower rate of major adverse cardiac events, compared with patients with bare-metal stents, at one year following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), according to a study published in the Aug. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Novel Risk Markers Improve Prediction of Heart Disease

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of certain novel risk markers can improve risk prediction for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) above that of the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in intermediate-risk individuals; while the addition of the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) offers limited improvement in risk prediction for first-time myocardial infarction or stroke, above that of the FRS, according to two studies published in the Aug. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Evidence-Based Public Health Interventions Identified

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Evidence-based public health interventions to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use are identified in an American Heart Association scientific statement published online Aug. 20 in Circulation.

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BMI, Post-Exercise Knee Laxity Change Tied to OA Progression

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, changes in knee joint laxity during stair climbing or other repetitive physical activity and baseline body mass index (BMI) are associated with disease progression, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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Prior Substance Abuse Linked to Opioid Abuse in Young Men

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Any prior substance abuse is associated with current abuse of prescription opioids among 18- to 25-year-old men, but only previous marijuana use correlates with subsequent prescription opioid abuse in young women, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in the Journal of Adolescent Health.

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Study Identifies Sleep Apnea in 50 Percent of Women

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Half of adult women aged 20 to 70 years may have obstructive sleep apnea, which correlates with age, obesity, and hypertension, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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Family Hx of Early Death Ups Risk of Early Cardiac Disease

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of early cardiovascular disease in patients younger than 50 years of age is significantly and consistently increased for those with a family history of premature cardiovascular death, according to a study published in the Aug. 28 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Resting Heart Rate Predicts Overall, Cardiovascular Mortality

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- High resting heart rates seem to be predictive of increased risk for overall and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and shorter survival times, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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Azathioprine May Benefit Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- For pediatric patients with refractory atopic dermatitis (AD), oral azathioprine is associated with clinical improvement, and measurement of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity seems useful for monitoring treatment, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Factors Tied to Photoprotection ID'd for Organ Recipients

TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- For organ transplant recipients, patients factors, including sex and skin type, and receipt of advice from health care providers, are both associated with sun protective behaviors, according to a study published online Aug. 9 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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Brain Damage Linked to Believing Misleading Ads

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Damage to a particular region of the brain makes individuals more likely to believe a misleading advertisement, which could explain why some elderly fall for fraud schemes, according to a study published online July 9 in Frontiers in Decision Neuroscience.

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Increased Stroke Risk at 30-Days Post-CABG Versus PCI

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of stroke at 30 days is significantly higher in patients who undergo coronary revascularization with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery compared to those who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), according to research published in the Aug. 28 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Post-Polyp Detection, CRC Risk ID'd by Colonoscopy Factors

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- In the community setting, after colonoscopic polyp detection, colonoscopy-related factors such as incomplete polyp removal and lack of surveillance colonoscopies are more important than polyp characteristics in predicting subsequent colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, according to a study published in the Aug. 21 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Obesity Plus Metabolic Factors Speeds Up Cognitive Decline

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals who are metabolically abnormal, increasing body mass index (BMI) correlates with faster cognitive decline, according to a study published in the Aug. 21 issue of Neurology.

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2012 Indicators of Well-Being for Older Americans Issued

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The estimates of selected indicators for well-being for older Americans for 2012 have been released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.

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Yo-Yo Dieters Still Benefit From Weight Loss Efforts

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Yo-yo dieting does not negatively affect participation in lifestyle intervention or the benefits of diet and exercise, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in Metabolism -- Clinical and Experimental.

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Prevalence of TB, Hepatitis C, HIV High Among Homeless

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The global prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis C virus infection, and HIV is high among homeless people, although significant heterogeneity is seen in prevalence estimates, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Soy Linked to Exacerbated Congenital Hypothyroidism

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Soy products appear to interfere with levothyroxine absorption and can exacerbate congenital hypothyroidism in infants and young children, according to a case report published online Aug. 20 in Pediatrics.

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Substance in Human Breast Milk Protects Against HIV Transmission

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- High concentrations of specific human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) appear to be protective against postnatal HIV transmission, according to research published online Aug. 15 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Karate Black Belts Have Differences in Brain Structure

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Black belts in karate have differences in white matter brain structure that are associated with their voluntary control of movement, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in Cerebral Cortex.

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Azithromycin Treats Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis with at least one exacerbation in the past year, treatment with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin correlates with a reduced rate of event-based exacerbations, according to a study published in the Aug. 18 issue of The Lancet, a theme issue on respiratory medicine.

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Cognitive Deficits Seen for Infants Exposed to Anesthesia

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Anesthesia exposure before the age of 3 years is associated with deficits in language and abstract reasoning in children at age 10, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in Pediatrics.

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Study Shows 'SuperAgers' Have Thicker Cortex, No Atrophy

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- 'SuperAgers,' individuals over the age of 80 with episodic memory performance as good as normative values for 50- to 65-year-olds, do exist, and they have a thicker cerebral cortex, with no atrophy, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.

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Men at Greater Lifetime Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease

MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The lifetime risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is higher for men than women, at all ages and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) strata, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Study Links Eating Egg Yolks With Carotid Plaque Area

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Eating three or more egg yolks, which are high in cholesterol, per week may increase the rate of carotid plaque area build-up, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Atherosclerosis.

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Urinary BPA Increased in Severe Coronary Artery Disease

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure, as measured by urinary BPA (uBPA) concentrations, is higher in individuals with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to those with no vessel disease, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in PLoS One.

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Ecallantide Efficacious for Hereditary Angioedema Attacks

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with unpredictable and recurring attacks of acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) may be effectively treated with ecallantide, with relapse occurring in a small proportion of patients and little evidence of rebound, according to a study published in the September issue of Allergy.

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ADHD-Related Impairment in Girls Persists Into Adulthood

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- For girls who are diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, impairment is maintained through early adulthood in various domains, including an increased risk for self-harm, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

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Good Transplant Outcomes in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Post-heart transplant survival does not differ significantly between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) and those with other types of heart disease, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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Study Finds Tobacco Use High in Developing Countries

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Despite global tobacco control efforts, in low- and middle-income countries, nearly half of men use tobacco, women are starting to smoke at earlier ages, and quit ratios are low, according to a study published in the Aug. 18 issue of The Lancet, a theme issue on respiratory medicine.

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Mepolizumab Effective in Treating Eosinophilic Asthma

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, treatment with mepolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin 5, is effective at reducing clinically significant exacerbations, according to a study published in the Aug. 18 issue of The Lancet, a theme issue on respiratory medicine.

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Considerable Variation in Outcomes for Cleft Lip/Palate

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable variation in the neuropsychological, behavioral, and academic outcomes of individuals with cleft lip and palate, as the outcomes are affected by developmental level, sex, and cleft type, according to a study published in the July issue of The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal.

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Delayed Gratification at Age 4 Predictive of BMI in Adulthood

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Delayed gratification among preschoolers can predict body mass index (BMI) about 30 years later, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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Even Minor Changes in Physical Activity Improve Bone Health

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- For premenopausal women, physical activity correlates with decreased sclerostin, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (s-IGF-I), and increased bone formation markers, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Vancomycin Overprescribed in Bloodstream MSSA Infections

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- In U.S. dialysis centers treating end-stage renal (ESRD) patients with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia, vancomycin is overprescribed, despite evidence of lower rates of hospitalization and death in cefazolin-treated patients, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Autoantibodies Predict Severity of IgA Nephropathy

FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Serum levels of autoantibodies to immunoglobulin G (IgG) and A (IgA) and the modified galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1), seen in IgA nephropathy (IgAN), are strongly associated with disease progression, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Olive Oil Consumption Linked to Increased Serum Osteocalcin

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Consumption of olive oil in addition to a Mediterranean diet correlates with increased osteocalcin levels and improvements in bone formation markers in elderly men at high cardiovascular risk, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Post-Intracerebral Bleed, BP Control Poorer for Blacks

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Blood pressure (BP) control is poor at 30 days and one year after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), particularly among black patients, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in Stroke.

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Small-Molecule Inhibitor Has Potential As Male Contraceptive

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- In mice, a selective, small-molecule inhibitor, JQ1, which targets the testis-specific member of the bromodomain and extraterminal subfamily of epigenetic reader proteins, BRDT, can cross the blood:testis barrier and cause complete and reversible contraception in mice, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in Cell.

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Exenatide Has Hemodynamic Effects in Healthy Men

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- The glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, exenatide, used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has significant acute hemodynamic effects on healthy volunteers, according to a study published in the September issue of the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

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Chemo for Breast Cancer Acceptable During Pregnancy

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- For women diagnosed with early breast cancer during pregnancy, chemotherapy seems acceptable for both mother and infant, with most adverse effects relating to premature birth, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Computer-Based Obesity Tx Programs Show Promise

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Interactive computer-based weight loss and weight maintenance interventions are more effective than no or minimal interventions, but are less effective than in-person treatment, according to a systematic review published online Aug. 15 in The Cochrane Library.

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Sedentary Behavior Linked to Motor Coordination in Children

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Sedentary behavior among children is linked to motor coordination, with those who engage in low levels of sedentary behavior more likely to have good motor coordination, regardless of physical activity, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the American Journal of Human Biology.

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Guidelines Updated for Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- A task force of The Endocrine Society has reviewed the evidence and updated guidelines for the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and the postpartum period, according to an article published in the Aug. 1 issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Ten New Susceptibility Loci Identified for Type 2 Diabetes

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Using a new DNA chip, the Metabochip, which includes 196,725 variants, to identify nominal associations for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolic and cardiovascular traits, 10 novel loci have been identified for T2D, according to research published online Aug. 12 in Nature Genetics.

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Catastrophizing Doesn't Predict Low Back Pain Evolution

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- For adult patients with acute or chronic low back pain (LBP), assessing the baseline score for catastrophizing does not help clinicians in routine clinical practice predict the evolution of LBP or the patient's disability at three months, according to a study published online July 23 in The Spine Journal.

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Vitreolytic Ocriplasmin Resolves Vitreomacular Traction

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Intravitreal injection of the vitreolytic agent ocriplasmin resolves vitreomacular traction and closes macular holes significantly better than placebo, but with a higher incidence of adverse events, according to a study published in the Aug. 16 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Pegylated Interferon Affects Growth, BMI in Children

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-α2a) treatment is linked to significant changes in body weight, linear growth, body mass index (BMI), and body composition in children treated for hepatitis C, according to a study published in the August issue of Hepatology.

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Brain's 'Glymphatic' System Clears Interstitial Solutes

THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Similar to the lymphatic system, the brain also contains a newly discovered system to drain waste, dubbed the "glymphatic" system, which may clear proteins implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Chronic Kidney Disease Increases Stroke Risk in A-Fib

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with atrial fibrillation who have chronic kidney disease are at higher risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism and bleeding, according to a study published in the Aug. 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Benefit of PSA Reduced by Loss of Quality-Adjusted Life-Years

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Although the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has reported a 29 percent reduction in prostate-cancer mortality for men who undergo prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, the benefit is attenuated by loss of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) due to post-diagnosis effects, according to a study published in the Aug. 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Tofacitinib Benefits Patients With Active Ulcerative Colitis

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Tofacitinib, an oral inhibitor of Janus kinas 1, 2, and 3, can reduce disease severity and induce remission better than a placebo in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis, according to a study published in the Aug. 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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FDA: Codeine May Be Fatal in Subset of Children

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Some children may be at risk for serious adverse events, including death, after taking codeine for relief of pain following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy for obstructive sleep apnea, according to a safety communication issued Aug. 15 by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration.

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Familial Dementia Risk Linked to C-Reactive Protein Levels

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The relatives of cognitively intact elderly men with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), have a reduced risk of dementia, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in Neurology.

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2008 to 2010 U.K. Recession Linked to Excess Suicides

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The rise in suicides in the United Kingdom during the 2008 to 2010 recession is likely partially associated with the increase in unemployment, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in BMJ.

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One-Hour Algorithm Safe for Rule-Out/Rule-In of Acute MI

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- An algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-CTnT) levels at baseline and after one hour can be used to successfully rule out or accurately diagnose acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the majority of patients who present with acute chest pain, according to research published online Aug. 13 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Addiction Tx Implementation Up With Pay for Performance

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Among therapists treating adolescents for substance abuse, pay for performance (P4P) can significantly improve treatment implementation but does not improve patients' end-of-treatment remission status, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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ABO Blood Group Correlated With Coronary Heart Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- There is a significantly elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among individuals with blood group A, B, or AB compared with those with blood group O, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

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Immune Response to Hep A Vaccine Persists in Children

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Hepatitis A vaccine-induced seropositivity, noted after vaccination of infants younger than 2 years, persists for at least 10 years, according to a study published in the August issue of Hepatology.

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Long-Term Type 2 Diabetes Ups Pancreatic Cancer Mortality

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Among patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC), those with pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for longer than five years have an increased mortality risk, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in Cancer.

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Hospital Deaths From Head Trauma Higher on Weekends

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults admitted for substantial head trauma during a weekend have a significantly increased mortality risk compared to those admitted on a weekday, according to a study published online July 9 in the Journal of Surgical Research.

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Post-Meltdown, Psychological Distress Up Among Workers

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- The March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan, triggering the subsequent meltdown of nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, correlated with an increase in the levels of psychological distress of power plant workers; but, six months to one year later, radiation exposure among individuals in a neighboring community was low, according to two letters to the editor published in the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapy Reduces PTSD Severity

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy reduces symptom severity and increases intimate relationship satisfaction; and Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE) combined with usual treatment for substance dependence reduces PTSD symptom severity, according to two studies published the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Denosumab Better for Breast Cancer With Bone Metastases

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- In women with advanced breast cancer and bone metastases, denosumab is better than zoledronic acid in preventing skeletal complications and improving health-related quality of life, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in Clinical Cancer Research.

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Kidney Donors, Recipients Have Little Difference in Income

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- The median income differences between living kidney donors and transplant recipients in the United States are negligible, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Universal Domestic Violence Screening Not Beneficial

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Screening for partner violence at the primary care level does not improve women's health or quality of life, or reduce further partner violence, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Cocoa Flavanols May Improve Cognitive Function in Elderly

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Regular consumption of cocoa flavanols may be associated with improved cognitive functioning in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in Hypertension.

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Genetic Features Identified in Tourette's Syndrome, OCD

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Specific genetic variants and features may be factors for Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), according to two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) published online Aug. 14 in Molecular Psychiatry.

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Benefits Unclear for 1st Versus 2nd Generation Antipsychotics

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions regarding the benefits of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) versus second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for adults with schizophrenia, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Vandetanib Slows Progression of Advanced Thyroid Cancer

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- The tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib is associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo for patients with locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Pregnancy Ups Bleed Risk From Abnormal Brain Blood Vessels

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Women with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain have a significantly increased risk of rupture and bleeding during pregnancy, according to a study published in the August issue of Neurosurgery.

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Poor Follow-Up of Hospital Tests Often Due to Late Orders

TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Poor follow-up of test results at or after discharge from the hospital is often due to tests requested on the day of discharge, according to a letter to the editor published online Aug. 13 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Competitive Food Laws Tied to Less BMI Change in Teens

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to strong state competitive food laws, which regulate the nutrition content of foods and drinks sold outside of federal school meal programs, during childhood is associated with lower body mass index (BMI) change, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in Pediatrics.

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Risk of Liver Injury Up With Certain Fluoroquinolones

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Moxifloxacin and levofloxacin use correlates with an increased risk of acute liver injury in older patients without a history of liver disease, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Regular Exercise in Middle Age Lowers Inflammatory Markers

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Middle-aged adults who have regularly engaged in physical activity for more than a decade appear to benefit from lower markers of inflammation, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in Circulation.

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Supplement Doses Inadequate for Androgen Deprivation Therapy

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Currently recommended calcium and vitamin D supplementation doses are inadequate to prevent bone mineral density (BMD) loss in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer, according to a study published online July 25 in The Oncologist.

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Snoring in Young Children Linked to Behavioral Problems

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Persistent, loud snoring in young children aged 2 and 3 years is associated with higher rates of behavior problems, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in Pediatrics.

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Genetic Factors Identified in Female Sexual Dysfunction

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- At least two genetic factors are involved in female sexual disorder (FSD) symptomatology in addition to non-shared environmental effects, according to the results of a twin study published online Aug. 2 in The Journal of Sexual Medicine.

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Urinary Proteomics Aids Early ID of Diabetic Nephropathy

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- A biomarker classifier in urine can allow early detection of progression to diabetic nephropathy years before onset of macroalbuminuria, according to a study published online Aug. 7 in Diabetes.

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Radiation Prevents Mastectomy Post-Conservative Op in Elderly

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Following conservative surgery (CS), receipt of radiation therapy (RT) is associated with a decreased likelihood of subsequent mastectomy for most women aged 70 to 79 years with early breast cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in Cancer.

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Cataract Risk Up for Statin Users With Type 2 Diabetes

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Statin use, which is substantially higher in patients with type 2 diabetes, correlates with an increased risk of age-related (AR) cataracts, according to a study published in the August issue of Optometry and Vision Science.

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Aspirin Use Again Linked to Slightly Lower Cancer Mortality

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Daily aspirin use is associated with lower overall cancer mortality, but the association may be smaller than previously reported, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Prevalence, Risk of Thyroid Disease Up in Vitiligo Patients

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Both the prevalence and the risk of thyroid diseases are significantly higher among patients with vitiligo compared to those without the condition, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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Periodontal Disease More Likely in Rheumatoid Arthritis

MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Periodontal disease (PD) is significantly more likely among nonsmoking, treatment-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than among healthy controls, according to research published online Aug. 8 in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

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Phone Intervention Cost-Effective for Glycemic Control

FRIDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The incremental per capita costs of a telephone-based intervention that moderately improves glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes are modest, according to a study published online July 30 in Diabetes Care.

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Device Reduces Epileptic Seizure Duration in Rats

FRIDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- A device that applies electrical stimulation to the brain in response to a seizure considerably reduces seizure length in a rat model of epilepsy, according to a study published in the Aug. 10 issue of Science.

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Self-Perceived Overweight in Teens Impacts Weight Gain

FRIDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Self-perceived overweight in normal-weight adolescents correlates with increased weight gain in early adulthood, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of Obesity.

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PSA Change After 5α Reductase Therapy Aids Cancer Diagnosis

FRIDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The magnitude of change in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) after 5α-reductase inhibitor therapy may help diagnose prostate cancer in men with persistently increased serum PSA and previously negative biopsies, according to a study published in the September issue of The Journal of Urology.

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Benefits of Bilingualism Apply With Minority Language

FRIDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The development of two languages, including situations where one is a minority language, is beneficial for cognitive development in children, according to a study published in the International Journal of Bilingualism.

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Life Expectancy Has Improved With Childhood Type 1 Diabetes

FRIDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- For children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, life expectancy has increased, with about a 15-year improvement seen from a 1950-1964 subcohort to a 1965-1980 subcohort, according to a study published online July 30 in Diabetes.

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Statin Benefits Outweigh Risk of Developing Diabetes

FRIDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Statins increase the risk of developing diabetes, but only in individuals already at risk of the disease, and the benefits of statins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and death outweigh the risks, according to a study published in the Aug. 11 issue of The Lancet.

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Reasons for Discontinuation Vary by Psoriasis Treatment

FRIDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The reasons for discontinuation of commonly used treatments for psoriasis vary by treatment, according to a study published online July 30 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Underinsurance Tied to Higher Death Risk After Cardio Events

FRIDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Being underinsured correlates with increased mortality after acute cardiovascular events, while race is not associated with increased mortality, according to a study published online July 21 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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CDC Issues Revised Guidelines for Gonorrhea Treatment

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Oral cefixime should no longer be considered the treatment of choice for gonorrhea; instead, patients should be treated with injectable ceftriaxone in combination with an oral antibiotic, azithromycin or doxycycline, according to revised guidelines published in the Aug. 10 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Psyllium Reduces Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Consumption of the fiber supplement psyllium correlates with reductions in risk factors for metabolic syndrome, according to a study published online Aug. 5 in Obesity Reviews.

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Study Links Age, Insurance, but Not Race, to Chemo Rates

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- For women with breast cancer, disease characteristics correlate significantly with chemotherapy receipt, with no indication of racial barriers to treatment, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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CDC: Increase in Prevalence of Walking in the United States

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of walking (defined as walking for leisure or transportation in at least one bout of 10 minutes or more in the last week) increased in the United States from 2005 to 2010, with an increased likelihood of meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline noted for walkers, according to a study published in the Aug. 7 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly.

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Maternal Obesity Ups Early Neonatal Mortality in Africa

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- For women in sub-Saharan Africa, maternal obesity correlates with increased risk of early neonatal mortality, according to a study published online Aug. 9 in The Lancet.

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After Bariatric Op, Controlled Diet Can Aid CaOx Supersaturation

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- After bariatric surgery, following a diet that is normal in calcium, low in oxalate, and moderate in protein, can improve urinary calcium oxalate (CaOx) supersaturation, but not urinary oxalate excretion, in patients with a history of kidney stones, according to a study published in the August issue of Urology.

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Vaccine Transiently Modifies Autoimmunity in Diabetes

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- A tuberculosis vaccine can reduce autoimmunity and increase insulin production in patients with long-term type 1 diabetes, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in PLoS One.

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No Increased Risk of Stroke After Spinal Fusion Surgery

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- In the three years following spinal fusion surgery, the incidence of stroke is similar to or insignificantly lower than that of controls, according to a study published in the June issue of The Spine Journal.

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Caloric Restriction Restores Glucose Response in Diabetes

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Neuronal responsiveness of the hypothalamus to glucose, critical in the regulation of feeding, can be restored in patients with type 2 diabetes by short-term caloric restriction, according to a study published online July 30 in Diabetes.

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Similar Mortality With Different TNF-α Inhibitor Therapies in RA

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with rheumatoid arthritis there are no significant differences in the overall mortality risk with different tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi) therapies (adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab), according to a study published online Aug. 8 in Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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Multifactorial Mechanisms Underlie Leg Weakness in Hip OA

THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Multiple factors contribute to leg weakness in people with hip osteoarthritis (OA), with muscle atrophy being the strongest contributor, according to the results of a systematic review published online July 25 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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Overcrowding Up in Hospitals With Large Minority Population

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- California hospitals serving large minority populations are more likely to be overcrowded and to divert ambulances, according to research published in the August issue of Health Affairs.

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Lifestyle-Integrated Approach Reduces Falls Among Elderly

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- For older adults at risk of falls, the integration of balance and strength training into routine daily activities correlates with a reduced rate of falls, according to a study published online Aug. 7 in BMJ.

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Measures for Parental Influence on Physical Activity Lacking

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Accepted measures to address the role of parental influence on child physical activity (PA) are lacking, with current studies characterized by variation in conceptualization and measurement of parenting, use of non-validated instruments, and lack of comprehensive measures, according to a review published online July 30 in Obesity Reviews.

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Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Ups Cognition in Elderly

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) improves cognition in healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), according to a study published online Aug. 6 in the Archives of Neurology.

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Racial Disparity in CT Use for Children With Head Trauma

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Minority children with minor blunt head trauma and low or intermediate risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury are significantly less likely to receive cranial computed tomography (CT) in the emergency department than their nonminority peers with the same risk, according to a study published in the August issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Bariatric Surgery Cuts MI Incidence in Obese With T2DM

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- For obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery reduces the incidence of some cardiovascular events, specifically myocardial infarction, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in Diabetes Care.

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Behavior Therapy for Tics Improves Tourette's Symptoms

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) is effective for treating adults with Tourette syndrome, according to a study published in the August issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Mortality Up for Normal-Weight Adults With Incident Diabetes

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Normal-weight adults who are diagnosed with new-onset diabetes have an increased mortality risk, compared with overweight/obese adults, according to a study published in the Aug. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Recent Trends Favorable for Lipid Levels in U.S. Youth

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Among U.S. youth, positive trends were noted in serum lipid concentrations in the period from 1988-1994 to 2007-2010, according to a study published in the Aug. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Topical Treatment Shows Potential for Infantile Eczema

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Ten days of treatment with a cream containing 15(R/S)-methyl-lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is well tolerated and reduces the severity of infantile eczema, according to a study published online July 26 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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Oral Corticosteroids Deemed Ineffective for Rhinosinusitis

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Systemic corticosteroids are not effective for symptom control in patients with acute rhinosinusitis, according to a study published online Aug. 7 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Weight Training Lowers Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in U.S. Men

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Weight training or aerobic exercise independently lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); and for those with diabetes, physical activity (PA) correlates with a lower mortality risk, according to two studies published online Aug. 6 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Limitations ID'd in Women's Breast Health in Pakistan

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Women in Pakistan need more awareness about breast health and access to early detection, and there is marked inconsistency among general practitioners (GPs) with respect to screening practices, work-up, and management, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of the American College of Radiology.

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Photosensitizing Antihypertensive Meds Up Risk of Lip Cancer

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- For non-Hispanic whites, long-term treatment with photosensitizing antihypertensive agents correlates with an increased likelihood of lip cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Social Connectedness in Teens Better Predicts Adult Well-Being

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescent social connectedness is a better predictor of adult well-being than academic achievement, according to a study published online July 25 in the Journal of Happiness Studies.

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Infection Risk Up for Seniors With Rheumatoid Arthritis

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Elderly adults with rheumatoid arthritis have a considerable risk of serious infection, with antirheumatic drug use increasing the risk, according to a study published online July 25 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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Donor Obesity Ups Risk of Poor Pediatric Transplant Outcome

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Severe obesity, but not overweight, in adult donors is a risk factor for graft loss and mortality in pediatric liver transplant recipients, according to a study published in the August issue of Liver Transplantation.

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Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence Tied to Coronary Artery Disease

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF) is significantly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in middle-aged adults with a long duration of type 1 diabetes, according to a study published online July 30 in Diabetes Care.

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No Increase in Preterm Delivery With Ramadan Fasting

TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who fast during the month of Ramadan do not have an increased risk of preterm delivery, regardless of when during gestation the fasting occurs, according to research published online July 25 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

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Implantable Defibrillators Cut Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- The use of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) has been responsible for about one-third of the reduction in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) having ventricular fibrillation (VF) as the initial recorded rhythm, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in Circulation.

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Vulvodynia Linked to Other Chronic Pain Conditions

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Women with vulvodynia are approximately two to three times more likely to have a comorbid chronic pain condition such as fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, or irritable bowel syndrome, according to research published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Complex Inheritance Usual in Vasovagal Syncope

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Complex inheritance is usual in vasovagal syncope, with major autosomal dominance less common, according to a study published in the Aug. 7 issue of Neurology.

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Learned Helplessness Linked to Arthritis Disease Outcomes

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP), learned helplessness (LH) correlates with disease outcomes and seems to mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and disease outcomes, according to a study published in the August issue of Arthritis Care & Research.

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Unsuspected PE Does Not Up Mortality Risk in Cancer Patients

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer patients with an unsuspected pulmonary embolism (UPE) do not have an increased mortality risk and have a similar risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) to those with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism (PE), according to research published online July 27 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

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Celiac Disease Prevalence Is Less Than 1 Percent in the U.S.

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States is 0.71 percent, according to research published online July 31 in the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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Sleep Duration Affects Hepatitis B Vaccine Response

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Sleeping less than six hours per night lowers the secondary antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination and significantly reduces the likelihood of individuals being clinically protected from hepatitis B, according to research published in the Aug. 1 issue of SLEEP.

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Healthy Media Leads to Fewer Sleep Problems for Children

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Healthy media with educational and prosocial content leads to fewer sleep problems for children aged 3 to 5 years, compared with violent or age-inappropriate media, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in Pediatrics.

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Honey Reduces Cough in Child Upper Respiratory Infection

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- For young children with nocturnal cough and sleep difficulty due to upper respiratory tract infection (URI), treatment with honey is associated with greater symptomatic relief than a silan date placebo, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in Pediatrics.

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Focus on Quality Ups Newborn Screening Follow-Up

MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Primary care pediatric practices can improve short-term newborn screening (NBS) follow-up through quality-improvement processes, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in Pediatrics.

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Wide Range of Accuracy in Web-Based Infant Sleep Advice

FRIDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- The accuracy of infant sleep recommendations found on the Internet varies by search terms used and type of Web site, according to a study published online Aug. 2 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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Larger Waist Linked to Worse Voiding Function in Men

FRIDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Central obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC), is associated with worse voiding, and men with a higher WC may be at increased risk of male pelvic dysfunction, according to a study published in the August issue of BJU International.

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Almost Half of U.S. Adults Have at Least One CVD Risk Factor

FRIDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- In 2009 to 2010, almost half of U.S. adults age 20 or older had at least one of three major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to an August data brief issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Lack of Sleep Affects Speed, Not Accuracy of Visual Tasks

FRIDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep deprivation and circadian rhythm disruptions impact the speed, but not the accuracy, with which complex visual tasks are performed, according to a study published online July 26 in the Journal of Vision.

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Alzheimer's Cognitive Decline Slows in Advanced Age

FRIDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- The rates of cognitive decline and atrophy characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) decrease with advancing age, while cognitively healthy individuals show increased rates, according to a study published online Aug. 2 in PLoS One.

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Spray-Based Therapy Promising for Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers

FRIDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- A spray-based therapy containing growth-arrested allogeneic neonatal keratinocytes and fibroblasts, HP802-247, is associated with a reduction in the wound area of chronic venous leg ulcers, according to a phase 2 study published online Aug. 3 in The Lancet.

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Smokers Substituting Cigars, Loose Tobacco for Cigarettes

THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- The popularity of cigarette smoking in the United States continues to decline, but it appears many smokers are turning to less heavily taxed cigars and loose tobacco, according to a report published in the Aug. 3 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Clinicians Can Unintentionally Prompt Nocebo Effect

THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- The nocebo effect, or induction of a symptom perceived as negative by sham treatment and/or the suggestion of negative expectation, may arise from suggestions by doctors and nurses, according to a study published in Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.

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Exercise, Drugs Compared for Depression Tx in CHD Patients

THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with coronary heart disease, aerobic exercise and the antidepressant sertraline are both associated with reduced depressive symptoms when compared to placebo, and they both tend to improve heart rate variability, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Childhood Sexual, Physical Abuse Tied to Age at Menarche

THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Childhood sexual and physical abuse correlate with age at menarche, according to a study published online July 26 in the Journal of Adolescent Health.

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Pets May Be Beneficial for Individuals With Autism

THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with autism display some improvement in prosocial behaviors after the arrival of a pet in their homes, according to research published online Aug. 1 in PLoS One.

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High-Cost Imaging of Advanced Cancer Patients Increasing

THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Use of imaging in stage IV cancer patients increased from 1995 to 2006, according to a study published online July 31 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Low Vitamin D, Frailty Impact Mortality Risk in Elderly

THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Adults over the age of 60 years with low vitamin D levels are more likely to be frail, and the combined effect of low vitamin D levels and frailty significantly increases the risk of mortality, according to a study published online June 13 in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Rabies Virus Exposure Linked to Possible Natural Resistance

THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Remote communities in the Peruvian Amazon at risk of rabies infection show signs of exposure to the virus, suggesting that exposure may not always be fatal, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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Caffeine Has Positive Effect on Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Caffeine has a limited effect on excessive daytime somnolence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but is associated with an improvement in objective motor measures, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in Neurology.

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Men With Prostate Cancer Increasingly Don't Die From It

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Men diagnosed with prostate cancer are more likely to die from other conditions, including heart disease, than from prostate cancer, according to a study published online July 25 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Ongoing Musical Activity Preserves Cognitive Function

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Musical activity predicts variation in cognitive aging, according to a study published online July 19 in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

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Nutrition Type Affects Endocrinology in SGA Infants

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants who are formula-fed (FOF) have elevated endocrine levels of high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) compared with breastfed (BRF) SGA infants, according to research published in the August issue of Diabetes.

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Monitoring Development Is Key in Congenital Heart Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at increased risk of developmental disorders or disabilities and developmental delay, and consequently benefit from periodic developmental surveillance, screening, evaluation, and reevaluation to identify significant deficits, according to an American Heart Association scientific statement published online July 30 in Circulation.

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Exercise Linked to Less Depression in Heart Failure

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with heart failure, exercise training is associated with a modest reduction in depression symptoms, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Psychological Distress Linked to Increased Mortality

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- There is a dose-response association for psychological distress and the risk of several causes of mortality, with increased mortality seen even at lower levels of distress, according to a meta-analysis published July 31 in BMJ.

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Adding Radiation Aids Pediatric Nonmetastatic Medulloblastoma

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with postoperative chemotherapy alone, adding conformal radiation therapy (CRT) to induction chemotherapy for the treatment of young children with nonmetastatic medulloblastoma increases event-free survival (EFS), according to a study published online July 30 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Active Surveillance Up in Multidisciplinary Prostate CA Care

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Men with low-risk prostate cancer are more likely to pursue active surveillance when seen at a multidisciplinary prostate cancer clinic rather than when they see individual specialists in sequential settings, according to a study published online July 30 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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