August 2006 Briefing - Gastroenterology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Gastroenterology for August 2006. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Vaccination Infrequent Among Patients with IBD

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), treatment with long-term immunosuppressive therapies increases the risk of vaccine-preventable illnesses, but immunization against these illnesses is uncommon, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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Drug Blocks New Colorectal Adenomas

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor celecoxib significantly reduces the risk of developing new colorectal adenomas in patients at high risk, although there is an increased risk of cardiovascular events, according to two studies published in the Aug. 31 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Small Hepatitis C Relapse Risk After Successful Retreatment

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Eleven out of 97 hepatitis C-positive patients who failed to respond to initial interferon treatment but seemed to clear the virus after combination interferon-ribavirin retreatment relapsed within two years, researchers report in the August issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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Thermal Ablation Can Eliminate Barrett's Esophagus

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- The complete removal of Barrett's esophagus can be accomplished in a majority of patients using thermal ablation, but the therapy can cause major complications, according to a report in the August issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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Secreted Lectins Keep Gut Microflora in Check

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The C-type lectin regenerating islet III gamma, or RegIIIγ, is secreted by basal cells of intestinal crypts and helps to keep in check the symbiotic flora found in the human gut, according to a report in the Aug. 25 issue of Science.

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GERD Patients Swallow More Air Than Healthy Patients

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Although air swallowing and belching are more common in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), they don't cause increased acid reflux, according to a study in the August issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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HIV, Hepatitis C Co-Infection Worsens Cognitive Function

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) may have significantly greater neurocognitive declines than patients infected with HIV alone, although these differences largely disappear after antiretroviral treatment, according to a study in the Aug. 1 issue of AIDS.

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Non-H. Pylori Bacteria Found in Hypochlorhydric Patients

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Hypochlorhydric patients may harbor strains of non-Helicobacter pylori organisms that produce urease, which can lead to false-positive breath tests and rapid urease tests, according to the results of a small study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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Mortality Linked to BMI in Two National Cohort Studies

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Two trials, one involving more than 500,000 Americans and the other over one million Koreans, suggest that even modest amounts of excess weight in middle age is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Results of both studies are published in the Aug. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Liver, Kidney Transplant Best for Dual-Organ Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Combined liver and kidney transplant benefits patients with dual-organ disease, including those with hepatorenal syndrome who have been receiving dialysis for more than two months, according to a study in the August issue of Archives of Surgery.

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Soft Drinks Not Linked to Esophageal Cancer

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Drinking carbonated soft drinks is not associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma, according to the results of a population-based study published in the Aug. 16 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Antibodies Are Novel Markers of Crohn's Disease

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Antibodies against two carbohydrates found in the serum of Crohn's disease patients are novel markers that discriminate between Crohn's and other inflammatory bowel diseases, according to a study in the August issue of Gastroenterology.

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Infection May Raise Risk of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a common problem for several years after acute gastroenteritis caused by water contamination, according to a study published in the August issue of Gastroenterology.

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Cardiorespiratory Fitness Affects Bariatric Surgery

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- In obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery, a low level of cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with an increased risk of post-surgical complications that include stroke, renal failure and death, according to research published in the August issue of Chest.

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Irritable Bowel Patients Show Visceral Hypersensitivity

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- While irritable bowel syndrome patients have hypersensitivity to visceral stimuli, repeated exposure to such stimuli results in habituation of visceral perception and central arousal despite no decline in activation of brain networks that process visceral pain and anticipation, according to a study in the August issue of Gastroenterology.

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Gut Microbes Contribute to Insulin Resistance

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Symbiotic microbes found in the gut can disrupt choline metabolism and contribute to the development of insulin resistance, highlighting the "thin line between gut commensal and pathogen," according to a report published online Aug. 8 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Acute Stress May Exacerbate Ulcerative Colitis

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with ulcerative colitis may experience a flare-up or exacerbation of symptoms when subjected to acute stress, according to a study published in the August issue of Gastroenterology.

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Hookworm Infection Combated by Allergic Response

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- The population density of the hookworm in patients is controlled by an allergic response in the small intestine, which may be a novel biological dynamic, according to a study published in the August issue of Gastroenterology. Hookworm affects nearly 700 million people worldwide.

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Females Have Higher Hepatitis C Virus Infection Clearance

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Women who are infected with hepatitis C virus may be more likely than men to have spontaneous viral clearance, according to a study of Egyptian patients in the August issue of the journal Gut.

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Phenotype at Time of Crohn's Diagnosis Predicts Recurrence

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- A patient's Crohn's disease phenotype at the time of diagnosis can predict recurrence, with upper gastrointestinal disease the strongest predictor of a recurrence in the next decade, according to a study in the August issue of the journal Gut.

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Citalopram May Improve Irritable Bowel Symptoms

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram may improve symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, according to the results of a small, controlled crossover study published in the August issue of the journal Gut.

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High Intake of Processed Meat Linked to Stomach Cancer

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- High consumption of processed meat may be associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer, according to a study published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Hyponatremia Risk Low with Oral Rehydration Solution

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- A reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) recommended in 2002 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to treat diarrhea is 50 percent less likely than an older formulation to cause hyponatremia, according to a study published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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HIV Evades Antiretroviral Therapy by Hiding in the Gut

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- HIV evades highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in infected patients by hiding in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, according to a report in the August issue of the Journal of Virology. Suppression of viral replication and control of inflammatory responses in the gut may be key to restoring mucosal immune system function during HAART.

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Physician's Briefing