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Measurable Residual Disease Negativity Tied to Survival in AML

AML patients without MRD have higher estimated rates of five-year disease-free, overall survival

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THURSDAY, Oct. 8, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), achieving measurable residual disease (MRD) negativity is associated with improved survival, according to a review and meta-analysis published online Oct. 8 in JAMA Oncology.

Nicholas J. Short, M.D., from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to examine the association between MRD status and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with AML. Data were included for 81 publications reporting on 11,151 patients.

The researchers found that for achieving MRD negativity, the average hazard ratios were 0.36 and 0.37 for OS and DFS, respectively. For patients without and with MRD, the estimated five-year DFS was 64 and 25 percent, respectively, and estimated OS was 68 and 34 percent, respectively. All subgroups had significant associations of MRD negativity with DFS and OS, with the exception of MRD assessed by cytogenetics or fluorescent in situ hybridization.

"Given the robustness of the association of MRD with long-term outcomes across studies, use of MRD status as an eligibility criterion and/or an end point in clinical trial design could lead to more efficient assessment of the efficacy of new drugs and combination therapies in AML," the authors write.

Several authors disclosed financial ties to the biopharmaceutical industry.

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