April 2008 Briefing - Infectious Disease
Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for April 2008. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
One Quarter of U.S. Children Not Adequately Vaccinated
WEDNESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- More than one in four children in the United States are not in compliance with official vaccine recommendations, a figure that is higher than previous estimates that relied on counting vaccine doses alone, according to a report scheduled to be published in the June issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Physicians Lack Feedback on Accuracy of Diagnoses
TUESDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Clinical diagnosis is a largely open-loop system in which there is no systematic way for clinicians to obtain feedback on the outcome of their diagnoses, according to an article published in a supplement to the May issue of The American Journal of Medicine.
Inhibition of Human T-Cell Protein Blocks HIV Replication
TUESDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Inhibition of a T-cell protein that is required for T-cell activation blocks HIV replication in in vitro experiments, according to an article published online April 28 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences Early Edition.
Oral Cefixime Availability Improves
TUESDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Availability of cefixime, the standard treatment for uncomplicated urogenital or rectal gonorrhea, should improve as it is now being manufactured by Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. of Baltimore, according to an article published in the April 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Palliative Care Can Improve Patient Care Most, Poll Finds
MONDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- In an international poll conducted by BMJ to determine which area of health care would enable doctors to make the greatest difference to patients, palliative care for non-malignant disease received the most votes, the BMJ Group announced at the International Forum on Quality and Safety in Health Care in Paris this week.
Clinical Observation Alone Effective in HIV Management
FRIDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- For HIV patients on the World Health Organization-recommended first-line regimen of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine, the use of clinical observation alone does not have a significantly adverse effect on patient survival or development of resistance when compared with observation that includes monitoring of viral load or CD4 cell count, according to a study published in the April 26 issue of The Lancet.
Uptake of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine is High
FRIDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Uptake of the first two doses of the human papillomavirus vaccine among adolescent schoolgirls in Manchester, United Kingdom, was encouraging, but high coverage for the third dose will determine the overall success of the vaccination program, according to a study published online April 24 in the BMJ.
Researchers Present Updated Discussion of Avian Flu
FRIDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Because H5N1 influenza A viruses have the potential to cause a worldwide pandemic with mortality rates as high as 60 percent, the development of broadly protective vaccines is imperative, according to a seminar published in the April 26 issue of The Lancet.
Simplified Rabies Vaccine Regimen is Immunogenic
THURSDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- A new simplified and economical four-site intradermal postexposure rabies vaccine regimen is as immunogenic as other regimens and may be more suitable for use in developing countries, according to a study published in the April issue of PLoS -- Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Antibiotic-Tolerant Bacteria Have Window of Sensitivity
WEDNESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Bacteria that are in a dormant persister state associated with tolerance to antibiotics are actually not dormant for a brief period, during which they are sensitive to antibiotics, according to a study in the April 22 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Latest Flu Vaccine Gave Poor Protection, CDC Says
WEDNESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccine had limited efficacy during the last flu season, uptake of the rotavirus vaccine is encouraging and researchers who have contact with a virus related to smallpox should be vaccinated, according to three articles in the April 18 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Health Care Workers Affected By Staph Infections
WEDNESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- While only 5 percent of health care workers become colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, they are more frequently vectors of the disease, according to a review published in the May issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Fluvastatin May Be Helpful in Chronic Hepatitis C
THURSDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Fluvastatin appears to be safe for lowering cholesterol in chronic carriers of hepatitis C virus, and the drug may actually exert an antiviral effect, according to research published in the April issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.
No Change in U.S. Rates of Foodborne Illness
THURSDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence rates for various foodborne illnesses have stabilized after a period of decline, according to a report published in the April 11 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Protects Against Malaria
WEDNESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with pyruvate kinase deficiency enjoy protection against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, suggesting that mutant pyruvate kinase alleles may have contributed to a relative survival advantage against malaria in endemic areas, according to an article published online April 16 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effective in Mice
TUESDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- A peptide vaccine targeting human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) protects mice against the virus as well as other HPV subtypes, according to a report published online April 14 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.
Drug Resistance Threatens Gonorrhea Control
TUESDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- The emerging resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to multiple antimicrobial agents is a major public health challenge, and heightened surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns and improved screening practices are necessary for adequate prevention and control of gonorrhea, according to an article published in the April 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Prenatal Ultrasound Limited in Congenital Cytomegalovirus
MONDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- In women who contract primary cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy, ultrasound predicts whether their infants will have symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus in only one-third of cases, according to research published in the April issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Mucosal Anthrax Vaccine Protective in Mice
FRIDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Detoxified anthrax lethal toxin elicits strong antibody responses and completely protects mice against anthrax, according to research published in the April issue of Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.
Individualized Health Care Budgets Improve Care
FRIDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- The U.K.'s National Health Service (NHS) should allow patients individual control of their health care budgets, an approach that has been shown in pilot studies to improve outcomes and patient satisfaction in a cost-effective manner, according to an analysis published April 12 in BMJ.
Media Coverage Did Not Affect Vaccination Uptake
THURSDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- The mainstream news media reporting of academic publications suggesting a link between the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autism did not result in a significant drop in uptake of the vaccination. Rather, this temporary drop occurred before the media coverage began, according to a report published in the April 1 issue of Pediatrics.
Consider Health Literacy Level When Writing for Patients
THURSDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Giving patients clearly written educational materials that convey key messages without resorting to jargon is an important part of engaging patient compliance with treatment and can contribute to health literacy, according to an article published in the April issue of Chest.
Transplant Teams Should Be Aware of Donor Tuberculosis
THURSDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- An estimated 0.35 percent to 6.5 percent of organ recipients in the United States and Europe will become infected with tuberculosis (TB) via the transplanted organ, according to a report published in the April 4 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Most Mumps Cases Occurred in Immunized Young Adults
WEDNESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Despite high national coverage rates with two doses of mumps vaccine, the largest outbreak of mumps in two decades occurred in 2006, suggesting that changes to the mumps vaccine or vaccine policy may be needed to avert future outbreaks, researchers report in the April 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Doctors Vote on the Ways to Make Biggest Difference
WEDNESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- The BMJ has begun accepting votes on which areas of health care allow doctors to make the biggest difference to patient care, with a shortlist of six areas each being championed by eminent doctors and researchers. The winning topic will gain special coverage in the BMJ and the BMJ Group's 24 other specialist journals and online education products.
Possible Person-to-Person Transmission of Bird Flu
WEDNESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Person-to-person transmission of bird flu may have taken place between a father and son in China in late 2007, according to a study published online April 8 in The Lancet.
Rotavirus Vaccine Effective in Latin American Infants
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- In Latin American infants, oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine provides significant protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis up to age 2, according to the results of a study published in the April 5 issue of The Lancet.
Local Research, Production Can Boost Global Vaccine Use
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Lack of access to vaccines in low- and middle-income countries causes over 2 million avoidable deaths a year, according to an article published in the April 5 issue of BMJ.
Second Rotavirus Vaccine Gets FDA Approval
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted approval to Rotarix, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals of Rixensart, Belgium, making it the second oral vaccine against rotavirus on the market in the United States, along with Merck's RotaTeq.
Cervical Threats May Arrive Without Human Papillomavirus
THURSDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- Out of any sizeable population, the occasional woman with cervical precancer will test negative for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) for a variety of possible reasons, according to research published in the April issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
FDA: Safety Warning Issued for Influenza Drug Relenza
THURSDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- The maker of the antiviral drug Relenza (zanamivir) informed health care professionals this week of a potential risk of behavioral changes and delirium associated with the drug's use. Relenza is approved for the treatment of influenza A and B.
Cream Effective for Treating Vulvar Neoplasia
WEDNESDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- An imiquimod cream is effective in treating vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, reducing lesion size, itching and pain, according to a report in the April 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
HIV Drugs May Increase the Risk of Heart Attack
WEDNESDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- HIV patients who have taken either abacavir or didanosine for six months or less may have an increased risk of heart attack, according to study findings published online April 2 in The Lancet.
Assay Helps Diagnose Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
WEDNESDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- New diagnostic methods are effective for more quickly diagnosing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and for distinguishing Mycobacterium avium-complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) from pulmonary tuberculosis, according to two studies in the April 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Human Papillomavirus Widespread Among U.S. Women
TUESDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) strains that put women at high risk of cervical cancer are widespread among U.S. women who undergo cervical screening, a finding that could influence whether or not testing for the virus is included in routine screening for cervical cancer, according to a report published in the April 1 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.