Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDWeek), Oct. 17-21, 2012
The annual meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America was held from Oct. 17 to 21 in San Diego and attracted approximately 6,000 participants from around the world, including scientists, physicians, and other health care professionals. The conference featured education courses and comprehensive educational programs that focused on the latest advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases as well as provided insight into emerging infections, new diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutic interventions.
In one study, Deverick J. Anderson, M.D., of Duke University in Durham, N.C., and colleagues evaluated whether an automated ultraviolet-C (UVC) emitting device was effective in eradicating particular pathogens in the real world hospital setting.
"We targeted 39 hospital rooms that had patients with infection due to one of three different pathogens, either vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and/or Clostridium difficile. We cultured five or more surfaces in the room, including bed rails, remote controls, tables, toilets, etc. We then irradiated the room using the UVC emitting device and cultured the areas again," Anderson said. "We found that, prior to irradiation, there was bacteria present in the rooms. Therefore, we know that patients with these pathogens were shedding the bacteria into the environment. In addition, we also found that the use of the UVC emitting device reduced the amount of pathogens by 95 to 98 percent for all three pathogens. It not only removed pathogens from exposed areas but from shadowed areas as well."
In another study, Jeffrey S. Gerber, M.D., of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and colleagues evaluated the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics among children with acute respiratory tract infections in a randomized trial of 18 primary care pediatric practices.
"We found that clinicians in practices who received education and audit and feedback of antibiotic prescribing improved their antibiotic use relative to prescribing guidelines endowed by the American Academy of Pediatrics," Gerber said. "Specifically, we saw a reduction of 48 percent in the use of broad-spectrum (off-guideline) antibiotics in the intervention group as compared to 18 percent in the control group, after 12 months. We saw the most improvement in the subset of children treated for pneumonia. Among the intervention group, there was a 75 percent reduction in the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics as compared to 6 percent in the control group, after 12 months."
Elizabeth A. Neuner, Pharm.D., of the Cleveland Clinic, and colleagues evaluated medication errors associated with antiretroviral treatment among hospitalized HIV patients over a 10-month period in 2011.
"We found that 50 percent of hospitalized HIV patients undergoing treatment with antiretroviral therapies had at least one medication error in antiretroviral regimens or in medication uses to treat or prevent opportunistic infections. In addition, we found that only 35 percent of medication errors were resolved upon discharge, and 65 percent were not resolved by time of discharge," Neuner said. "Institutions should be aware of the risk of medication errors with antiretroviral medications and take safeguards in the medication use process to prevent and resolve those errors."
IDSA: School Vaccine Program Lowers Flu Rates, Absenteeism
MONDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- School-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs may reduce the rate of influenza and school absenteeism; and almost half of children with influenza-associated mortality have no underlying high-risk conditions, according to two studies presented at the annual meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDWeek), held from Oct. 17 to 21 in San Diego.
IDSA: Universal Decolonization Cuts Infection Risk in ICU
THURSDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- For patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), universal decolonization, including daily chlorhexidine baths and mupirocin for five days, is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical cultures and bloodstream infections of all pathogens, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDWeek), held from Oct. 17 to 21 in San Diego.