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June 2006 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for June 2006. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Salmonella Infections Traced to Contact with Pet Treats

FRIDAY, June 30 (HealthDay News) -- Nine people in western Canada and Washington State have developed human Salmonella Thompson infections after handling dog treats that were packaged at two facilities in British Columbia and Washington, according to a report in the June 30 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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FDA Warns of Ketek-Associated Liver Problems

FRIDAY, June 30 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning to health care professionals and patients to be aware of the potential of rare, but serious risks of liver injury with the antibiotic Ketek (telithromycin).

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Panel Recommends Gardasil As Routine Adolescent Vaccine

THURSDAY, June 29 (HealthDay News) -- The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that 11- and 12-year-old girls routinely receive Gardasil, the newly approved human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, to protect against cervical cancer. The vaccine can be administered to girls as young as age 9, at the provider's discretion, and for women up to age 26 who have not previously received an HPV vaccine.

More Information - Merck

CDC Reports 1.2 Percent of Rapid HIV Tests Positive

THURSDAY, June 29 (HealthDay News) -- About 1.2 percent of the nearly 373,000 rapid HIV tests conducted in the United States between September 2003 and December 2005 were confirmed HIV-positive, according to a report in the June 23 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Keratitis Found in Contact Lens Wearers in Singapore

TUESDAY, June 27 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified an outbreak of fungal keratitis among soft contact lens wearers in Singapore, nearly all of them associated with poor lens hygiene practices and use of ReNu cleaning solution manufactured by Bausch & Lomb, according to a report in the June 28 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Bausch & Lomb issued a global recall of ReNu with MoistureLoc in May.

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Perineal Care Washcloths Recalled Due to Bacteria

TUESDAY, June 27 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Sage Products of Cary, Ill., have announced a recall of certain batches of Comfort Shield Perineal Care Washcloths due to contamination with Burkholderia cepacia.

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FDA Approves Prezista, A New Protease Inhibitor for HIV

MONDAY, June 26 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved darunavir (Prezista), a new protease inhibitor for use in treating HIV-infected adults who have not responded to other antiretroviral drugs. The drug is approved for co-administration with a low dose of ritonavir (as well as other anti-HIV agents), which increases the concentration of Prezista in the patient's system by slowing its absorption.

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Painful Bladder Syndrome Definition May Be Insufficient

FRIDAY, June 23 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients with recent-onset interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome do not meet the International Continence Society (ICS) definition, according to a study published in the June issue of Urology.

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MRSA Skin Infections in Three States Linked to Tattoos

FRIDAY, June 23 (HealthDay News) -- Forty-four people in the United States who received tattoos from 13 unlicensed practitioners in three states have contracted community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin infections, according to a report in the June 23 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Incubation Period of Prion Disease Could Exceed 50 Years

FRIDAY, June 23 (HealthDay News) -- Kuru, the human prion disease found in Papua New Guinea related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, can have an incubation period of 50 years or longer, according to a report in the June 24 issue of The Lancet.

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Condom Use Reduces Risk of HPV in Young Women

WEDNESDAY, June 21 (HealthDay News) -- Newly sexually active young women whose male partners consistently use condoms during sex are at less risk of cervical and vulvovaginal infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a study published in the June 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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CDC Reports Mild Flu Season, But Virus Still Circulating

FRIDAY, June 16 (HealthDay News) -- Although the United States had a mild influenza season in 2005-2006, the flu virus remains active, and the so-called avian flu (H5N1) virus is still spreading across other parts of the world, according to a report in the June 16 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Travelers to Malarial Regions Should Take Preventive Steps

FRIDAY, June 16 (HealthDay News) -- Patients traveling to countries in which malaria is endemic should take anti-malarial drugs and precautions against mosquito bites, even if they are traveling to their country of origin for a visit, according to a report in the June 16 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Estrogen Receptor Genes Linked to Liver Carcinoma

THURSDAY, June 15 (HealthDay News) -- Polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) may play a role in mediating risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus carriers, according to a study conducted in China and published in the June issue of Gastroenterology.

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Short Antibiotic Course Effectively Treats Pneumonia

FRIDAY, June 9 (HealthDay News) -- Three days of intravenous antibiotic treatment are as effective as seven to 10 days of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment for patients with community-acquired pneumonia who respond to the intravenous treatment, according to a study published in the June 10 issue of BMJ.

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Hantavirus Cases on the Rise in Western United States

FRIDAY, June 9 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. health officials are calling for stepped-up public awareness and precautions against Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) after more human cases of the potentially fatal illness surfaced in five western states during the first three months of 2006 than in the same time period in 2005, according to a report in the June 9 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Vaccine Prolongs Survival After SIV Challenge in Monkeys

FRIDAY, June 9 (HealthDay News) -- Monkeys vaccinated with plasmid DNA and an adenovirus vector that expresses simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) proteins show increased survival after an SIV challenge that is associated with a stronger initial T-cell response and preservation of memory CD4+ T cells, according to a report in the June 9 issue of Science.

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FDA Approves Gardasil Cervical Cancer Vaccine

THURSDAY, June 8 (HealthDay News) -- For the first time, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a vaccine to reduce cervical cancer by preventing infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18. Gardasil is manufactured by Merck & Co. and is approved for use in females aged 9 to 26.

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Single-Dose Azithromycin Treats Severe Cholera in Adults

WEDNESDAY, June 7 (HealthDay News) -- A single dose of azithromycin is more effective than a single dose of ciprofloxacin to treat cholera in adults, according to a report in the June 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Chronic Infection May Raise Risk of Insulin Resistance

WEDNESDAY, June 7 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pathogens associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis including herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Chlamydia pneumoniae may also be associated with a greater risk of developing insulin resistance, according to a study in the May issue of Diabetes Care.

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Nap Schedule May Reduce Fatigue in Medical Residents

TUESDAY, June 6 (HealthDay News) -- A protected nap schedule for medical residents covering overnight shifts only modestly increases sleep time but reduces reports of fatigue and sleepiness, according to a study in the June 6 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Effect of Early Antibiotic for Meningococcal Disease Unclear

FRIDAY, June 2 (HealthDay News) -- Two studies analyzing mortality risk in children with meningococcal disease given parenteral antibiotics by a primary care physician prior to hospital admission have shown inconsistent results, with one suggesting harm and the other suggesting benefit, according to the June 3 issue of BMJ. Because children with more severe symptoms are more likely to receive an antibiotic, this confounding factor makes it difficult to determine if the practice is helpful or harmful, the authors report.

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