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November 2006 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for November 2006. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Ocular MRSA Isolates Resistant to Fluoroquinolones

THURSDAY, Nov. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ocular surface isolates show high rates of resistance to fluoroquinolones, including fourth-generation fluoroquinolones, but are highly sensitive to vancomycin and gentamicin, researchers report in the November issue of the American Journal of Ophthalmology.

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Intermittent HIV Therapy Increases Risk of Death

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Intermittent rather than continuous antiretroviral therapy significantly increases the risk of opportunistic infections and death in HIV-infected individuals, largely due to fewer CD4+ T cells and higher viral load, researchers report in the Nov. 30 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Iron Loading Mutation Linked to Hepatitis C Response

MONDAY, Nov. 27 (HealthDay News) -- While mutations in the HFE gene have been linked to increased iron loading and possible liver injury, they also correlate with sustained virologic responses to chronic hepatitis C therapy, according to a report in the November issue of Gastroenterology.

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Typhoid Fever Bacterium Has Evolved Slowly

FRIDAY, Nov. 24 (HealthDay News) -- A genetic analysis of over 100 global strains of Salmonella enterica Typhi, which causes typhoid fever, has shown that the bacterium evolves slowly except during outbreaks, carriers are asymptomatic and drug resistance is spreading, according to research published in the Nov. 24 issue of Science.

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Avian Flu Clusters Found in Turkey and Indonesia

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Clusters of human H5N1 virus infection have been identified in Turkey and Indonesia, although the diagnoses in Turkey were at first difficult to make, according to two studies published in the Nov. 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Residents and Fellows Are Cheapest Way to Staff ICUs

TUESDAY, Nov. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Using non-physician providers to staff intensive care units is less cost-effective than using residents and fellows, according to the results of a study published in the November issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Influenza Vaccination Linked to Risk for Guillain-Barre

FRIDAY, Nov. 17 (HealthDay News) -- A small but statistically significant increase in adult hospitalization for Guillain-Barre syndrome is linked to influenza vaccination, according to the results of a Canadian study published in the Nov. 13 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Greater Risk of COPD in HIV-Positive Men

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 15 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-positive men have a 50 percent to 60 percent higher risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than HIV-negative men, according to a study in the November issue of Chest.

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Chloroquine Returns as Anti-Malarial Drug in Malawi

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 8 (HealthDay News) -- The anti-malarial drug chloroquine, withdrawn by Malawi in 1993 because of declining efficacy, may once again be an effective treatment, according to study findings published in the Nov. 9 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Malaria Prevention Strategies Should Be Individualized

TUESDAY, Nov. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Until a consensus on guidelines is reached, individually tailored strategies are needed to help prevent malaria among long-term travelers, according to a literature review published in the Nov. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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U.S. Adults Favor Balanced Sex Education Programs

MONDAY, Nov. 6 (HealthDay News) -- American adults of all political stripes support comprehensive sex education programs that teach children about abstinence and other ways to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, according to a study published in the November issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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