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July 2008 Briefing - Internal Medicine

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Internal Medicine for July 2008. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Pregestational Diabetes Raises Birth Defect Risk

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women with pregestational diabetes mellitus are more likely than pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus to have a child with birth defects, according to a report published online July 31 in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Drugs Mimic Exercise and Increase Endurance

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Two drugs can increase exercise endurance in mice by reprogramming their muscles, according to research published online July 31 in Cell. One drug is effective only in conjunction with exercise while the other is effective even in sedentary mice.

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Deportation Linked to More HIV Infection in Male Mexicans

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- The likelihood of HIV infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico depends on gender and how long they have lived in Tijuana, with a higher prevalence among males deported from the United States, according to the results of a study published online July 29 in PLoS ONE.

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Glomerular Filtration Screening Should Not Be Universal

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) should not be used to universally screen for chronic kidney disease and should be restricted to high-risk groups due to the potential to falsely diagnose women and particularly the elderly, according to two articles published online July 30 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Two Different Breast Cancer Screening Programs Compared

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Although the organized, population-based screening program in Norway has a longer screening interval, opportunistic mammography screening in Vermont achieves similar outcomes, according to a report published online July 29 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Joint Replacement Linked to Cardiac Complications

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Among total joint replacement surgery patients, two new risk factors -- revision surgery and bilateral joint replacement -- as well as traditional risk factors increase odds of cardiac complications, according to an article published in the July issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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Device May Decrease Musculoskeletal Procedure Pain

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- A reciprocating procedure device decreases patient's pain during musculoskeletal procedures, improves outcomes and may decrease needlestick injuries to health care workers, according to an article published in the July issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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United States' AIDS Relief Plan at Crossroads

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has achieved dramatic results so far, thanks to a strong results-oriented focus and sense of urgency, but as Congress reauthorizes funding for the program, it must consider where it goes from here, according to an article published online July 30 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Adverse Outcomes in IVF Babies Analyzed

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Babies conceived spontaneously and as a result of assisted fertilization by the same woman have similar risks of adverse outcomes, meaning that adverse outcomes among assisted fertilization babies may be attributable to the underlying causes of infertility rather than the fertility treatment itself, according to a report published online July 31 in The Lancet.

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Endothelial Function Linked to Cardio Risk in Sedentary

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Endothelial function is significantly associated with cardiovascular risk in women in sedentary professions, with cardiorespiratory fitness being the best predictor of endothelial function, according to study findings published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Cardiology.

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Genetic Factor Studied in Susceptibility to Migraine

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Carriers of the MTHFR 677C>T genotype who have migraines with aura are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, according to research published online July 30 in Neurology.

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Mouse Model of Postpartum Depression Developed

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Mice lacking a major target of neurosteroid hormones, which have been implicated in various psychiatric and neurological disorders, display abnormal postpartum behavior and may be a useful model for postpartum depression, researchers report in the July 31 issue of Neuron.

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Bone Marker Linked to Death in Dialysis Patients

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- High or rising levels of alkaline phosphatase, a marker of bone turnover, are associated with a higher risk of death in patients undergoing dialysis, according to the results of a study published online July 30 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Cyclosporine May Reduce Size of Infarct After Heart Attack

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- The use of cyclosporine immediately before percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with myocardial infarction may be associated with a smaller infarct, according to research from the July 31 New England Journal of Medicine.

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Smoke-Free Scotland Has Less Acute Coronary Syndrome

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- After legislation banning smoking in public places was introduced in Scotland, there was a decrease in the number of hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome, of which 67 percent was accounted for by nonsmokers, according to a study in the July 31 New England Journal of Medicine.

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Higher Statin Dose Beneficial in Metabolic Syndrome

WEDNESDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- A higher dose of atorvastatin is more effective than a lower dose in reducing biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome, according to a study in the Aug. 1 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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PAND Doesn't Add to Survival With Gastric Cancer

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- In patients undergoing gastrectomy for curable gastric cancer, the addition of para-aortic nodal dissection (PAND) to D2 lymphadenectomy isn't advisable, according to research in the July 31 New England Journal of Medicine.

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Microbicidal HIV Prevention Trial Halted Early

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Cellulose sulfate gel -- investigated as a vaginal microbicide against HIV -- didn't reduce HIV infections and may have even increased the risk in a sample of women, according to research published in the July 31 New England Journal of Medicine.

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Heavier Patients Visiting Cardiac Catheterization Labs

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Patients weighing as much as 550 pounds are now being seen in cardiovascular catheterization laboratories, creating logistical and safety challenges, according to a study in the Aug. 1 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Increased Hip Bone Density Linked to Breast Cancer

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- In postmenopausal women, hip bone mineral density predicts breast cancer risk independently of the Gail score, suggesting that the two measurements could be used together to better quantify the risk, according to a study published online July 29 in Cancer.

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Nurses Approach Issue of ER Overcrowding

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Staff participation, such as deciding on the criteria for the closure of a hospital emergency department waiting room, is an effective way to conduct research into operational change, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of Emergency Nursing.

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Salmonella Slows Tumor Growth in Some Cancers

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Salmonella typhimurium inhibits the growth of breast and colon tumors and decreases pulmonary metastasis in breast cancer models without inducing severe toxicity, according to a study published online July 29 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

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FDA Approves First Generic Divalproex Sodium

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved generic versions of Depakote delayed-release tablets (divalproex sodium) for the first time, according to a press release issued by the FDA this week.

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Androgen-Deprivation Therapy May Harm Cognition

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- In men with prostate cancer, androgen-deprivation therapy may be associated with subtle but significant cognitive declines, according to a study published online July 29 in Cancer.

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Heart Failure Hospitalizations at Nearly 4 Million

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitalizations for heart failure in the United States increased from 1979 to nearly 4 million in 2004, with more hospitalizations for the elderly and increased costs to Medicare and Medicaid, according to a study in the Aug. 5 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Hepatitis C Doesn't Impair CD4 Recovery in HIV Context

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Coinfection with hepatitis C virus does not reduce CD4 recovery in subjects with HIV who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, according to research published in the July AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.

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Total Knee Arthroplasty Has Long-Term Benefits

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- The physical function benefits of total knee arthroplasty to treat osteoarthritis are sustained beyond five years and are seen in both obese and non-obese patients, according to the results of a study published online July 29 in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

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Use of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Endocarditis Discouraged

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Antibiotic prophylaxis should no longer routinely be given to prevent infective endocarditis in patients undergoing dental and other medical procedures, according to updated guidelines published online July 28 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The guidelines were jointly developed by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association.

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Marine-Derived n-3 Fatty Acids, Atherosclerosis Level Linked

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Marine-derived n-3 fatty acids are associated with decreased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery but not coronary artery calcification in Japanese men, according to a study in the Aug. 5 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Statin Use May Decrease Cognitive Impairment

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Statin use is associated with a significant decline in dementia and other cognitive impairment, according to the July 29 issue of Neurology.

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Elevated Cardiac Biomarkers Linked to Higher Mortality

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Apparently healthy older adults with elevated levels of at least one of two plasma biomarkers of cardiovascular disease have a higher risk of death from cardiac and noncardiac causes, according to a study in the Aug. 5 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Heart Medications Can Affect Heart Imaging

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Heart medications can modify the results of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) by reducing or eliminating ischemia, according to a review in the Aug. 5 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Dementia Linked to Both High and Low Thyrotropin Levels

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Abnormal thyrotropin levels in women are associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease, according to the July 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Blood-Based Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer Identified

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Blood levels of small RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) can distinguish men with prostate cancer from healthy men, according to a study in the July 29 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Hearing Loss More Prevalent Than Previously Reported

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of hearing loss is greater than previously reported, and hearing loss prevention needs to be implemented early, according to an article published in the July 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Diabetes-Diet Link Examined in Trio of Studies

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus, while increased consumption of fruit drinks may increase risk, and diets low in fat have no effect on development of diabetes, according to three articles published in the July 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Exercise Is Key for Long-Term Weight Loss

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Sustaining a 10 percent or more weight loss requires fairly high levels of physical activity in combination with reduced energy intake, according to an article published in the July 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Fatal Medication Errors Surge Since 1983

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- The death rate due to fatal medication errors rose sharply between 1983 and 2004, with particularly steep increases in incidents in the home and deaths from a combination of medications and alcohol or street drugs, according to research published in the July 28 Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Link Needs More Research

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Despite the link between sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease, more research is needed to explain how these two conditions interact so that sleep medicine specialists and cardiologists can develop a consensus concerning best practice, according to an American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation scientific statement published online July 28 in Circulation.

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Osteoarthritis Increases in British Columbia Sample

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Between 1996 and 2004, the incidence of osteoarthritis rose in British Columbia, Canada, because of aging of the population and other factors, according to research published online June 24 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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Taser Injuries Require Preparation in ERs

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Given law enforcement officers' growing use of Tasers and accumulating accounts of deaths from the electroshock devices, emergency nurses and other care providers need to be prepared to handle Taser-related injuries, according to a paper in the August Journal of Emergency Nursing.

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Collagen Treatment for Arthritis Holds Appeal

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Oral administration of chicken type II collagen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis resulted in decreased pain and morning stiffness and other beneficial outcomes, according to research published in the July 15 Arthritis Care & Research.

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Infections Rare After Mohs Micrographic Surgery

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Surgical site infections are extremely uncommon in patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery for non-melanoma skin cancer or modified Mohs micrographic surgery for lentigo maligna melanoma in situ, suggesting that the routine administration of antibiotics may be unnecessary, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Medical Errors Have Impact After Hospital Discharge

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Medical errors affect patients in the months after hospital discharge as well as during their hospital stays, leading to excess costs, deaths and hospital readmissions, according to a study published online July 25 in Health Services Research.

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Caffeine Use Still Widespread in Elite Athletes

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Although the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) no longer bans caffeine in sports, questions remain on the eve of the Beijing Olympics as to caffeine's real and perceived efficacy in enhancing athletic performance, according to a commentary published in July in BMJ Clinical Evidence.

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Fecal Occult Blood Tests Offer Different Results

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- The use of an immunochemical fecal occult blood test (I-FOBT) resulted in higher participation and detection rates for advanced adenomas and cancer than use of a guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (G-FOBT), according to research published in the July Gastroenterology.

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Dementia Rate May Be Underestimated in Some Areas

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Usage of the DSM-IV may markedly underestimate the prevalence of dementia in less developed areas of the world, according to research published online July 28 in The Lancet.

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Nevirapine Dosing Studied in Breast-Feeding Moms with HIV

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- In HIV-infected mothers, risk of HIV transmission to their uninfected breast-feeding infants may be reduced by a prolonged postpartum course of nevirapine, according to an article published in the July 26 issue of The Lancet.

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ER Physicians Perceive Evolving MI Patients as High Risk

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians usually perceive patients with evolving myocardial infarction (EMI) as high risk and give them similar treatment to patients presenting with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, according to an article published in the August issue of the Emergency Medicine Journal.

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HIV Transmission Possible Despite Effective Treatment

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- While individual risk of HIV transmission per sexual encounter is fairly small when one partner is effectively treated and the other is seronegative, the rate of transmission over large numbers of sexual encounters may be substantial, according to research published in the July 26 issue of The Lancet.

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Subtotal Discectomy Decreases Reoperation Rates

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Subtotal discectomy decreases reherniation after lumbar discectomy and is more effective than fragment excision alone, according to an article published in the July issue of the Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques.

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West Nile Virus Cases Reported in 14 States

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- There were 43 cases of West Nile virus reported from 14 states this year up to July 22, according to a report published in the July 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Elderly Sleep Fewer Hours Than Younger People

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- The elderly have a lower tendency to sleep during the day and sleep about 1.5 hours less per day than younger people, which could have implications for age-related insomnia, researchers report in the Aug. 5 issue of Current Biology.

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Timing Is Crucial in Measles Vaccination

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- The age at which the protective effect of maternal measles antibodies wears off varies widely from region to region and should be taken into account when formulating optimum immunization strategies, according to an editorial published online July 24 in BMJ.

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HIV Survival Increases with Antiretroviral Therapy

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Significant declines in mortality and an increase in life expectancy have been seen among HIV-positive patients using combination antiretroviral therapy, according to study findings published in the July 26 issue of The Lancet.

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White, Middle-Aged Males Most Likely Group to Exercise

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- The demographic pattern of participation in exercise and sports changed between 1997 and 2006 in England, with fewer young men exercising and more participation by middle-aged and older adults, according to an article published online July 25 in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

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Teledermatology Improves Skin Cancer Outcomes

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- In the management of skin cancer, teledermatology referral leads to clinical outcomes that equal or even surpass those of conventional referral, according to a report published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Non-Pharmaceutical Fentanyl Linked to Overdose Deaths

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Illicitly manufactured non-pharmaceutical fentanyl was associated with 1,013 deaths in six U.S. counties or states from April 2005 to March 2007, according to a report published in the July 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Population Policy Key to Environmental Protection

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Controlling population growth by providing better access to contraception could help combat global warming by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the human strain on the world's resources, according to an editorial published online July 24 in BMJ.

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Vacuum-Assisted Wound Closure Improves Healing

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) may assist wound healing in spinal procedures complicated by wound infections, according to a report the July issue of the Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques.

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Protein Involved in Regulating Body Clock

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- The SIRT1 protein is involved in regulating the body clock by controlling the expression of circadian genes and interacting with an important core regulator of the cellular circadian clock machinery, according to two studies in the July 25 issue of Cell.

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Free Plasma Homocysteine Predicts Recurrent Heart Events

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Free plasma homocysteine levels are a significant and independent risk factor for recurrent cardiovascular events for hospitalized patients, while total plasma homocysteine levels have no predictive value, according to an article published in the July 15 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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Tuberculosis Screenings Urged for Psoriasis Patients

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Before psoriasis patients are treated with systemic and biologic agents, they should be screened and treated for latent tuberculosis infections, according to a National Psoriasis Foundation consensus statement published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Postmenopausal Estrogen May Increase Reflux Symptoms

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women may slightly increase the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux, according to research published in the July issue of Gastroenterology.

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Receptor Activation Inhibits Prostate Cancer Growth

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- The liver X receptor (LXR), which had previously been shown to sense cholesterol metabolites, can also reduce androgen production and inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells, according to research published in the August issue of Endocrinology.

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New Laser Technique May Reduce Acne Scars

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with acne scars, ablative fractional resurfacing with a novel 30-watt laser that combines carbon dioxide ablation with a fractional photothermolysis system may significantly improve facial appearance with minimal side effects, according to study findings published in the August issue of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine.

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Drug Restores Heart Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Mice

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Treating obese mice with Captopril, an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system, restores insulin sensitivity in their hearts but does not affect insulin levels or glucose tolerance, researchers report in the August issue of Endocrinology.

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Statin Use May Benefit Kidney Transplant Patients

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- In kidney transplant patients, statin use may be associated with prolonged survival, according to research published online July 23 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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High Soy Intake Linked to Low Sperm Counts

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Men who consume high levels of soy-containing foods tend to have lower sperm counts, with no effect on sperm motility or morphology, according to research published online July 23 in Human Reproduction.

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Timing of Lymph Node Dissection Studied in Breast Cancer

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- The timing of axillary lymph node dissection does not affect the number of lymph nodes recovered or long-term complications in patients with breast cancer that has metastasized to the sentinel lymph nodes, according to a report in the July 20 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Treatment Guidelines Issued for Pre-Diabetic Patients

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with pre-diabetes may need aggressive lifestyle management, medication, or both to reduce their risk of developing overt diabetes and cardiovascular disease, according to a Consensus Statement released July 23 in Washington, D.C., by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.

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Mitral Regurgitation Therapy Needs Clarification

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Mitral valve repair is the preferred therapy for primary mitral regurgitation, but indications for surgery in secondary mitral regurgitation are less certain, according to a report in the July 29 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Accredited Hospitals Give Better Care for Heart Attack

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitals with Society of Chest Pain Centers' accreditation are more likely than non-accredited hospitals to comply with Medicare and Medicaid core measures for acute myocardial infarction, according to a report published in the July 15 issue of the American Journal of Cardiology.

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Oxidation Found to Have Role in Cell-Death Alerts

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- The different immune system responses following necrosis or apoptosis of cells is influenced by high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) that may be released by the dying cells, as well as by reactive oxygen species (ROS), according to research published in the July 18 issue of Immunity.

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Cognitive Function Poorer with Coronary Heart Disease

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Coronary heart disease is associated with poor cognitive performance in middle age, with greater declines in cognitive function among men with increased time since first coronary event, according to an article published online July 22 in the European Heart Journal.

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Self-Assessment Detects Alcohol Abuse in Pre-Op Patients

THURSDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- A computer-based self-assessment is much better than anesthesiologists at detecting alcohol abuse among preoperative patients, according to a report in the August issue of Anesthesiology.

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Raltegravir Beneficial in Drug-Resistant HIV

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with drug-resistant HIV, treatment with raltegravir -- an integrase inhibitor -- in combination with optimized background therapy leads to significantly improved viral suppression, according to two studies published in the July 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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'Tier 4' Drugs Raise Questions About Affordability

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- The emergence of a fourth tier of copayment for expensive drugs calls into question how Americans are going to handle the rising costs of health care, according to a perspective article in the July 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Genes Implicated in Myopathy in Individuals on Simvastatin

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Variants in the SLC01B1 gene, which plays a role in the hepatic uptake of statins, may raise the risk of myopathy in individuals taking simvastatin, according to research published online July 23 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Sorafenib Beneficial in Advanced Liver Cancer

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with sorafenib -- an oral multikinase inhibitor -- may benefit patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, according to research published in the July 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Consequences of Genetic Non-Discrimination Act Examined

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- The Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act (GINA), recently signed into U.S. law, creates a troublesome distinction between those at genetic risk for a disease and those with other characteristics that predispose them to a condition, according to a perspective article published in the July 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Spinal Cord Neural Stem Cells Migrate into Injury

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- A population of neural stem cells lining the central canal of the spinal cord in mice migrate into injured spinal cord and contribute to scar formation, according to the results of a study published in the July issue of PLoS Biology.

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Adjuvant Treatment Improves Pancreatic Cancer Survival

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Four new studies show that the addition of chemotherapy and radiation before or after surgery for pancreatic cancer can improve survival, according to an editorial in the July 20 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Non-Invasive Tests Superior for Predicting Cardiac Events

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- A disease score developed from completion of several non-invasive tests may better predict future cardiac events than a risk factor assessment such as the Framingham 10-year risk scores, researchers report in the July 29 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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New Standard of Care Proposed for Metastatic Kidney Cancer

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Everolimus improves progression-free survival compared to placebo in patients with progressive, metastatic renal cell carcinoma that failed other targeted therapies, according to research published online July 23 in The Lancet.

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Memory and Central Auditory Function Related

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- A stepwise decline in central auditory function was noted when comparing patients with mild memory impairment and no dementia to Alzheimer's patients with memory loss, according to an article published in the July issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

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Strong Arguments For and Against Sun's Role in Melanoma

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Whether or not sun exposure is a major cause of melanoma is the subject of two opposing view Head to Head articles, published online July 22 in BMJ.

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Physicians to Get Bonus for Electronic Prescribing

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors using an electronic prescriptions system will be eligible for a bonus from Medicare from 2009 onwards for four years, according to U.S. health officials.

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Risk-Prediction Tool Identifies In-Hospital Mortality Risk

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Application of a risk-prediction algorithm may help identify congestive heart failure patients at high risk of in-hospital mortality, according to an article published in the July 29 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Drug Abuse Adds to Scotland's Excess Mortality

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- One-third of the excess mortality rate in Scotland versus England is due to drug-related deaths, according to a study published online July 22 in BMJ.

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Genetic Variation May Raise HIV Risk in African Americans

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- A genetic variation that provides protection from Plasmodium vivax malaria appears to increase susceptibility to HIV infection, according to research published in the July 17 issue of Cell Host & Microbe.

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Shifts in Focus Could Reduce Tuberculosis

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Focusing on some foreign-born individuals with latent tuberculosis infection may represent one of the more effective options for improving TB control in this group in the United States, and a framework of strategic activities in HIV care programs could address pressing global concerns related to TB, according to two studies in the July 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Sildenafil May Help Women Treated for Depression

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Among women taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors for depression, sildenafil may help relieve sexual dysfunction associated with the use of the antidepressants, according to research published in the July 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Treatment for Infertile Men Looks Promising

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- For infertile men with varicoceles, embolization improves sperm count and motility and may aid in pregnancy, researchers report in the August issue of Radiology.

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Drugs Can Reduce Discomfort During Mammography

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Premedication with lidocaine can help reduce discomfort in women who expect pain during mammography screening and make it more likely they will continue to undergo regular screening, according to a report released online July 22 in advance of publication in the September issue of Radiology.

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Gender Affects Heart's Response to Obesity

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Myocardial metabolic responses to obesity significantly vary by gender, according to the results of a study published in the July issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Imaging.

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Heart Disease Revealed in Many Adults Without Symptoms

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- A considerable proportion of a group of apparently healthy individuals showed signs of coronary artery disease on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), according to research published in the July 29 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Homosexuals in Pakistan at High Risk of HIV Infection

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Although homosexuality is prohibited in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, it is widely practiced and men who have sex with men are at high risk of HIV infection. Policy changes are needed in Pakistan to reach this vulnerable population, according to an article published in the August issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Urologic Burden in Veterans Similar to National Data

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of urologic conditions among users of Veterans Affairs health care services is comparable to other national data, but the prevalence rises when rates are based on "any" diagnoses at a physician visit, according to research published in the July issue of Urology.

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Application Data Hints at Surgical Residency Completion

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- The likelihood that surgical residents will fall by the wayside can be predicted from factors on their residency applications, with non-academic factors the most important, according to a paper published in the July issue of the Archives of Surgery.

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Gene Expression May Help Predict Lung Cancer Outcomes

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- A combination of tumor gene expression and clinical covariates may help predict survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, according to an article published online July 20 in Nature Medicine.

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Non-Invasive Test Detects Heart Disease in Women

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Multi-component cardiovascular magnetic resonance stress perfusion testing can accurately diagnose coronary artery disease in women, according to research published in the July issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Imaging.

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Topiramate Therapy During Pregnancy Raises Concerns

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- The use of topiramate as monotherapy or as an adjunct to other treatment for epilepsy during pregnancy raises some concerns about the increased risk of congenital malformation, according to a report published in the July 22 issue of Neurology.

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Using Older Liver Donors May Help Reduce Waiting Lists

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Using livers donated by marginal donors may reduce the waiting time for liver transplant patients without having a negative impact on outcomes, even for patients with hepatitis C virus, according to research published in the July issue of the Archives of Surgery.

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Lymph Node Evaluation Varies by Hospital Type and Volume

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with gastric or pancreatic cancer, lymph node evaluation is significantly more comprehensive at National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated institutions and at high-volume hospitals, according to a report published in the July issue of the Archives of Surgery.

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Women More Likely Than Men to Remove Tattoos

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Although tattoo procurement is an increasingly mainstream phenomenon, visible tattoos on women may not be as socially acceptable as they are for men, and more women than men choose to have tattoos removed, according to a study published in the July issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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Peers Play Key Role in Nutrition Education of Latinos

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Peer education can help improve diabetes self-management and breast-feeding outcomes among Latinos, researchers report in the July issue of the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.

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Protein Linked to Poorer Ovarian Cancer Outcomes

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Overexpression of tissue type transglutaminase (TG2) in ovarian carcinoma is associated with poorer patient survival; TG2 also spurs cancer cell attachment, invasion, and resistance to chemotherapy, according to research published in the July 15 issue of Cancer Research.

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Maternal Obesity Linked to Obesity in Offspring in Rats

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Offspring of obese mother rats or those overfed after birth are considerably heavier and are more likely to be fatter, glucose intolerant, have high lipid levels and have changes in appetite hormones, according to study findings published online July 17 in Endocrinology.

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Uterine Rupture in Vaginal Birth After C-Section Studied

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Women having a vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery should receive a maximum oxytocin dose of 20 mU/min to avoid uterine rupture, according to a report in the July issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. A related study in the same issue found that the risk of uterine rupture in these patients cannot be predicted by factors available before admission.

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New Technique Decreases Radiation Exposure

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- The use of navigation-assisted fluoroscopy for minimally invasive spine surgery is both possible and safe, according to an article published in the July issue of The Spine Journal.

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Immunosuppressive Agent May Promote Tumor Growth

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- While calcineurin inhibitors are effective immunosuppressive agents that inhibit allograft rejection, they may actually promote tumor growth, according to an article published in the July 15 issue of Cancer Research.

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Robotic Prostatectomy Review Points to Positive Outcomes

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- A review of articles comparing robotically assisted prostatectomies with open and laparoscopic procedures offers data on outcomes to help guide surgical choice. The review was published in the July issue of Urology.

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Retinoic Acid May Spur Tumor Vessel Growth

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Treating SKBR-3 breast cancer cells with retinoic acid can encourage the growth of extensive network structures and induces endothelial genes, suggesting a method of creating blood supply to tumors, according to research published online July 16 in PLoS ONE.

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Breast-Feeding Lowers Infant Risk of Stomach Infection

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Infants of low-income women who are predominantly breast-fed have a lower risk of gastrointestinal infection but a higher risk of iron deficiency than infants who are partially or entirely formula-fed, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of the Journal of Nutrition.

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One-Fourth of the U.S. Population Is Obese, CDC Reports

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity rates in the United States remain well above goals for Healthy People 2010, according to a report by researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published in the July 18 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Progress Made on Road to Engineered Tissue

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- The goal of engineered tissues for therapeutic revascularization is a step closer after engineered vascular networks were formed in mice using cord blood-derived progenitor cells, according to a study published in the July 18 issue of Circulation Research.

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Variations in Gene Linked to Depression Remission

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Variations in the SLC6A4 gene are associated with remission of depressive symptoms in white non-Hispanic adults taking citalopram, according to research published online July 10 in the American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B.

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Implicit Racial Bias Exists, But Doesn't Affect Treatment

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Implicit racial bias is present in pediatricians, but is not associated with differences in treatment decisions, according to an article published in the July issue of Medical Care.

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Dimebon Improves Cognition in Alzheimer's Patients

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Dimebon improved the clinical course of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease and was both safe and well tolerated, according to the results of a study published in the July 19 issue of The Lancet.

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Routine Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Cost-Effective

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Routine vaccination of 12-year-old girls against human papillomavirus, combined with an initial catch-up campaign to cover girls up to the age of 18, would likely be cost-effective, according to research published online July 17 in BMJ.

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Ratio Estimates Cardiac Risk Across Multiple Ethnic Groups

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- The non-fasting apolipoprotein B100/apolipoprotein A1 (ApoB/ApoA1) ratio provides a better risk estimate for acute myocardial infarction than the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio or the total cholesterol/HDL ratio, according to an article published in the July 19 issue of The Lancet.

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Report Finds U.S. Health System Lagging Further Behind

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. health system is operating poorly compared to its potential, with America falling further behind other nations that are leading on performance indicators, according to a report released by The Commonwealth Fund on July 17.

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Ovary Removal Linked to Less Depression After Hysterectomy

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Removal of both ovaries in premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy is associated with less depression or no change in depression depending on whether they were depressed before surgery, according to a report in the July issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Anti-HIV Microbicides Could Have Surprising Outcomes

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Vaginal microbicides containing antiretrovirals to prevent HIV infection in women could lead to many cases of drug resistance, according to research published in the July 15 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Longer Sleep Linked to Higher Stroke Risk in Older Women

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep duration affects the risk of stroke in postmenopausal women, with a sharply higher risk for women who sleep more than seven hours a night, according to research published online July 17 in Stroke.

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Violent Attacks Becoming Less Frequent But More Serious

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- In contrast to the strong media, public and government reaction to a spate of recent knife killings in the United Kingdom, violent crime has decreased in frequency from 2000 to 2007, with knife crimes remaining stable at approximately 7 percent of the total. However, hospital admissions for violent crime have increased, pointing to more serious injuries sustained as a result of violent crime, according to an editorial published online July 16 in BMJ.

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Only Modest Proof for Diabetic Gastroparesis Drug

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Although the majority of trials of domperidone to treat diabetic gastroparesis yield results in favor of using the drug, the findings should be treated with caution because of the lack of control arms in positive studies, according to a review article published in the July issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Fiber Intake in Early Pregnancy Affects Preeclampsia Risk

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Total fiber intake during the early stages of pregnancy may attenuate the risk of developing preeclampsia, according to study findings published online July 17 in the American Journal of Hypertension.

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Brain Stimulation Benefits Adults with Lazy Eye

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Non-invasive stimulation of the visual cortex can temporarily improve contrast sensitivity in the affected eye of adults with lazy eye, according to a report in the July 22 issue of Current Biology.

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PET Scans Offer Information on Breast Cancer Survival

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Positron emission tomography (PET) provides predictive information regarding survival in women with locally advanced breast carcinoma, according to research published online July 14 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Nerve Changes Occur After Organophosphate Poisoning

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Intermediate syndrome (IMS), or muscle paralysis or weakness caused by organophosphates found in pesticides and nerve agents, is associated with distinct changes in nerve activity that improve with recovery, according to an article published online July 15 in PLoS Medicine.

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Pseudoaneurysm After Spinal Device Migration Treatable

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Pseudoaneurysm of the aorta due to device migration is a rare but treatable complication following placement of an anterior spinal device, according to an article published in the July issue of The Spine Journal.

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Prevention Programs Could Save $16 Billion Annually

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Community-based disease prevention programs to increase physical activity, improve nutrition and prevent tobacco use could save the United States $16 billion a year in medical costs within five years, mostly from Medicare and private payers, according to a new report by Trust for America's Health.

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Project Compares Cancer Survival Around Globe

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- A novel comparison of cancer survival around the globe finds a wide variation in survival from breast, colorectal and prostate cancer, according to research published online July 17 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Bacterial Infection Linked to Reduced Childhood Asthma

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Childhood infection with Helicobacter pylori reduces the likelihood of developing asthma and related illnesses, according to an article published online July 3 in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. A related review in the May issue of Gut discusses the current evidence and possible mechanisms linking H. pylori infection, asthma and allergy.

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Exception Reporting Improves Pay-for-Performance Benefits

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Pay-for-performance programs benefit from use of exclusion reporting, whereby certain patients are excluded from quality calculations, and the practice of excluding patients to disguise missed targets, known as gaming, is rare, according to study findings published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Medication Use After Heart Attack Varies By Kidney Status

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- In older heart attack survivors, the use and adherence to recommended cardiovascular medications varies by kidney status but is unlikely to explain differences in long-term outcomes, according to research published online July 9 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Most Breech Infants Born by Caesarean in United States

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- More than 80 percent of breech infants in the United States are born by Caesarean section, although rates vary widely by state, researchers report in the July issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Medical Education Must Adapt to Changing Times

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Medical schools must adapt their admission requirements and curricula to changes in scientific theory, and are also facing a challenge to the traditional definition of who is suited to the study of medicine, according to two articles published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Study Points to Interaction of Stress, Glucocorticoid Receptor

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Glucocorticoid receptors in the forebrain appear to be necessary for glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of acute psychogenic but not systemic stress responses, according to the results of a study in mice published online July 10 in Endocrinology.

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No Asthma Control Benefit from Low-Sodium Diet

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- In contrast to the results of small clinical trials, asthma patients who follow a low-sodium diet as an adjunct to normal treatment do not have any related improvement in their symptoms, according to a new report published in the July 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Menthol Levels Changed to Promote Teen Smoking

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Menthol content in cigarettes is one of the ways in which tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes to appeal to adolescents and young adults, according to the results of a study published online July 16 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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Warfarin Appears Safe After Cardioembolic Stroke

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- The initiation of warfarin for anticoagulation appears to be safe soon after cardioembolic stroke, according to research published online July 14 in the Archives of Neurology.

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Therapy-Suspected Link Reported in Lung Cancer Patient

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- A case of lung cancer in an individual using anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapies -- which regressed upon withdrawal of the drugs -- raises concerns about the use of anti-TNF therapy in older patients with a history of smoking, according to correspondence in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Mediterranean and Low-Carb Diets Show Benefits

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets appear to be safe, effective alternatives to low-fat diets for weight loss, and offer some metabolic benefits, according to research published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Therapy May Increase Kidney Transplant Rates

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Intravenous immune globulin plus rituximab is a promising desensitization combination regimen for patients awaiting kidney transplant, according to an article published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Early Births Linked to Difficulties in Adulthood

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Decreased gestational age at birth was associated with a higher risk of severe medical disabilities in adulthood, as well as a lower likelihood of reaching several educational milestones or having a high income, according to research published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Fall Prevention Program Efficacious and Cost-Effective

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- A multidisciplinary educational program geared towards clinicians to help them prevent falls in their elderly patients resulted in fewer serious fall-related injuries in patients aged 70 and older, according to an article published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Combination Therapy Superior for Rheumatoid Arthritis

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Etanercept plus methotrexate is superior to methotrexate alone for clinical remission and radiographic non-progression of rheumatoid arthritis, according to an article published online July 16 in The Lancet.

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Medical Records May Underreport Adverse Events

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Medical records and patients often disagree as to whether an adverse event occurred during hospitalization, and some of the events reported in post-discharge interviews are serious and preventable, according to an article published in the July 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Alterations Often Observed with Medical Interpreters

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Interpreters who translate medical information between clinicians and the families of patients with limited English proficiency have about a 50 percent chance of altering the meaning, with potentially negative consequences, according to a report in the July issue of Chest.

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Visit Companions Improve Satisfaction with Care

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Visit companions are actively engaged in the care of older patients and influence patient satisfaction with physician care, according to an article published in the July 14 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Prehypertension Increases Coronary Calcium Later in Life

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- There is a strong association between prehypertension in young adults and coronary calcium later in life, researchers report in the July 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Heparin Improves Outcomes After Knee Arthroscopy

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- One week of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prevents deep venous thrombosis better than graduated compression stockings in adults having knee arthroscopy, according to an article published in the July 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Eye Knowledge Low in Sample of Hispanics with Diabetes

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Relatively few Hispanics in Baltimore with diabetes or a family history of the disease were knowledgeable about diabetes-related eye complications, according to research published in the July issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

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Costs, Medical Services Use High for Pulmonary Patients

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) alone or with asthma use more medical services and incur higher costs than patients with asthma alone, according to the results of a study in the July issue of Chest. A related study in the same issue found that the use of spirometry to diagnose COPD varies greatly among regions in the United States.

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AMA Actions Fostered U.S. Medical Racial Divide

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- From the post-Civil War years to the civil rights era a century later, the American Medical Association (AMA) made decisions that helped support a division between white and black Americans in the field of medicine in the United States, according to an article in the July 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Prostate Cancer Vaccine Increases Survival

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Men with non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer have better survival when receiving a vaccine followed by hormone therapy, according to the results of a study published in the July 15 issue of Clinical Cancer Research.

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Exposure to Violence Aggravates Health Inequalities

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to violence makes a direct contribution to health inequalities by restricting people's ability to exercise outdoors and inhibiting delivery of health-related services, according to a report published online July 15 in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

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Model Predicts Hospital Admissions in Patients Over 40

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- A population model can predict urgent hospital admissions for patients 40 years of age and older based on prior admissions and medication use, according to an article published in the July 14 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Statewide Care Program May Be National Model

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- In North Carolina, an innovative community care program improves quality and reduces costs and may be a model for other states to follow, according to an article published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Revised Mental Exam Cut Score May Benefit Well-Educated

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- A cut score of 27 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) may be more useful in identifying dementia in older patients with a college education than the traditional cut score of 24, according to research published in the July issue of the Archives of Neurology.

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Fitness May Reduce Brain Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with early Alzheimer's disease, increased cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with reduced brain atrophy, but the reasons are unclear, according to a study published in the July 15 issue of Neurology.

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Many Elderly Patients Not Offered Joint Replacement

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- While recovery may be lengthy, most elderly patients undergoing joint replacement have excellent outcomes, according to an article published in the July 14 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Heart Disease Linked to Worse Quality of Life

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- American adults with coronary heart disease report lower mental and physical health and quality of life compared with those without coronary heart disease, according to a report published online July 14 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Visual Impairment Raises Risk of Suicide

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Visual impairment is indirectly associated with a higher risk of suicide, researchers report in the July issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

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Many People Unable to Recognize Need to Slim Down

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- The threshold at which overweight people perceive their weight to be cause for concern has risen dramatically over the past eight years, according to the results of a U.K. study published online July 10 in BMJ Online First.

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Self-Rated Cardiac Risk Linked to Cardiovascular Mortality

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Cardiovascular mortality is lower in men -- but not in women -- who rate themselves as having a lower-than-average cardiovascular risk. Also, an integrated care intervention may improve medication adherence in older adults who are on antihypertensive and antidepressant therapy, according to two studies published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Iron Reduction Linked to Lower Risk of Cancer

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Reducing iron through regular phlebotomies is associated with a lower incidence of cancer, according to research published in the July 16 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Amino Acids Not Beneficial for Postmenopausal Women

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- In postmenopausal women, treatment with the amino acid L-isoleucine does not reduce hot flushes, and treatment with L-isoleucine and another amino acid -- L-valine -- either alone or in combination, has no effect on fasting serum homocysteine levels, according to research published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Breast Cancer Onset in Susceptible Groups Differs

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- The onset of breast cancer in the unaffected twin of a sister with breast cancer and the onset of bilateral breast cancer based on family history differs from that normally seen in unilateral disease and is largely unaffected by age and time since diagnosis, according to a report released online June 30 in advance of publication in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Dietary Cocktail Improves Memory in Animal Study

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- A dietary cocktail containing an omega-3 fatty acid significantly improves memory and learning in gerbils, suggesting that a similar cocktail may benefit patients with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, according to a report published online July 7 in the FASEB Journal: The Journal of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology.

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Costs May Be Higher at Doctor-Owned Hospitals

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- At physician-owned specialty hospitals, financial incentives linked to ownership may significantly alter practice patterns in ways that increase patient health care expenditures, according to an article published in the July issue of Medical Care.

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Aspirin Improves Bone Density in Mouse Osteoporosis

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Aspirin treatment of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis in mice can improve bone mineral density by stimulating the production of bone-forming cells and inhibiting bone-resorbing cells, researchers report in the July issue of PLoS ONE.

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Melanoma Incidence Up Among Younger Whites

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of invasive cutaneous melanoma among white men and women aged 15 to 39 has significantly increased since 1973, and has more than doubled among younger women, according to a letter published online July 10 in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

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Consumer-Directed Health Plans Affect Patient Choices

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Enrollees in high-deductible consumer-directed health plans may be more likely than those with other coverage to either delay seeking care or stop taking medications for chronic illnesses, according to two studies published in the July/August issue of Health Affairs.

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Non-Invasive Biomarker May Help Screen for Liver Fibrosis

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Type 2 diabetes patients who are at high risk for liver fibrosis may benefit from a screening test using a non-invasive biomarker, according to a report published in the July issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Muscle Stem Cells Can Treat Mouse Muscular Dystrophy

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Muscle stem cells can be purified and used to improve muscle function in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy, according to the results of a study published in the July 11 issue of Cell.

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Shoulder Dystocia Training Improves Neonatal Outcomes

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- The introduction of shoulder dystocia training for all hospital maternity staff can significantly improve management of the complication as well as neonatal outcomes, according to research published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Higher Education Tied to Lower Cancer Death Rates

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Reductions in death rates from four major cancers in the United States in recent years were generally confined to better-educated individuals, and epidemiological studies on cancer and other diseases are vulnerable to false-positive findings, according to two papers published online July 8 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Flavonoid-Rich Foods Improve Cardiac Risk Factors

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Flavonoids, which are found in many commonly consumed plant foods and beverages, improve a number of different cardiovascular risk factors, according to an article published in the July issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Peptide Reduces Mortality After Heart Attack in Rats

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Early treatment with ghrelin soon after a myocardial infarction prevents an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and reduces mortality in rats, according to the results of a study published online July 3 in Endocrinology.

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Younger Breast Cancer Patients Have Worse Prognosis

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer patients aged 45 and younger have a worse prognosis than their older counterparts, and their disease represents a subset of breast cancers that share gene expression patterns, according to a study published in the July 10 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Oral Hormone Therapy Raises Risk of Gallbladder Disease

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Postmenopausal women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are at higher risk of gallbladder disease if they use oral rather than transdermal drugs, according to study findings published July 10 in BMJ Online First.

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Mortality Risk High After Vertebral Fracture in Elderly

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Elderly patients of both genders and all ages and ethnicities have a high risk of mortality after a vertebral fracture, researchers report in the July issue of the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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Early Hip-Fracture Surgery Improves Patient Outcomes

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Hip-fracture patients who undergo surgery within 24 hours after hospital admission are significantly less likely to develop pressure ulcers and endure long hospital stays, and more likely to return to independent living than those who undergo later surgery, according to the results of a study published in the July issue of the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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Pegylated Interferon Boosts Melanoma Survival Rates

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Survival rates for melanoma patients improve if they are treated with a pegylated form of interferon alfa-2 versus observation alone, according to a report published in the July 12 issue of The Lancet.

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Nutrition Linked to Survival in Traumatic Brain Injury

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Beginning nutritional support within five days of severe traumatic brain injury is associated with a decrease in two-week mortality, according to research published in the July issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery.

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Endometrial Cancer Prevention Strategies Needed for Obese

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- In most obese women, neither oral contraceptives nor current screening methods are cost-effective endometrial cancer prevention strategies. But oral contraceptives may be a cost-effective strategy for subgroups of women who are morbidly obese or have longstanding anovulation, researchers report in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Heavy Drinking Linked to Stroke and Heart Disease

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Men who drink heavily have a higher risk of death from stroke, while women who drink heavily have a higher risk of death from coronary heart disease, but light-to-moderate drinking lowers the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in both sexes, according to research published online July 10 in Stroke.

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Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Alaska Eskimos High

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Despite their traditional diet high in fish oils that are protective against coronary artery disease, Alaska Eskimos have higher rates of atherosclerosis than the general United States population and similar risk factors for cardiovascular disease, according to a report published online July 10 in Stroke.

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Apolipoprotein E Genotype, Cortisol, Linked to Cognition

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- APOE-ε4 genotype may play a role in an individual's susceptibility to the consequences of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation on cognitive function, researchers report in a study published online July 1 in the American Journal of Psychiatry.

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Weight Loss Trial Has Good Results At Six-Month Mark

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- In the first phase of the Weight-Loss Maintenance trial, participants made substantial progress in losing weight due to dietary changes and increased physical activity, according to a report published in the August issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Study Probes Resveratrol's Anti-Cancer Activities

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Resveratrol, an antioxidant found in grapes and other plant foods, may inhibit breast cancer initiation through its actions in the estrogen genotoxicity pathway, according to research published in the July issue of Cancer Prevention Research.

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Mantle Cell Lymphoma Rate on Rise in Recent Years

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- In a sample of patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma between 1992 and 2004, mantle cell lymphoma accounted for 2.8 percent of the cases, according to research published in the August 15 issue of Cancer.

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Vitamin A Linked to Lower Infant Mortality

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Administering a one-time vitamin A supplement to newborns in Bangladesh within a few days of birth was associated with a lower risk of mortality through six months, according to research published in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Nanoparticles Send Doxorubicin to Cancer Target

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Using nanoparticles to deliver targeted doxorubicin to tumor vasculature in mice resulted in greatly improved drug efficacy with minimal side effects, according to research published online July 8 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Technology Improves Assessment of Bone Fusion

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- While assessment of osseous fusion post arthrodesis is difficult, computer-assisted techniques may decrease subjectivity in assessing post-operative fusion, according to an article published in the June issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

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Relationship Violence Common in College Students

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of all college-age students have experienced relationship violence at some point in their lives, according to an article published in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Program Improves Insomnia After Cancer Treatment

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- A cognitive behavior therapy program consisting of small group sessions teaching stimulus control, sleep restriction and cognitive therapy strategies can improve sleep in cancer patients dealing with insomnia post-treatment, according to the results of a study published online June 30 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Diagnosis, Treatment of Heart Attack in Pregnancy Reviewed

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Although rare, pregnancy-related heart attacks most often occur in women with cardiovascular risk factors and should be diagnosed and treated the same way as in non-pregnant patients while taking maternal and fetal factors into account, according to a review in the July 15 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Therapy Shows Transient Benefits in Parkinson's Disease

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with extradural motor cortex stimulation in four patients with Parkinson's disease led to some improvements in the first six months that were largely lost by the end of the year, researchers report in the July issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery.

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Frequent Dialysis Increases Costs But Is Cost-Effective

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- More frequent hemodialysis is more expensive but cost-effective for patients with end-stage renal disease, and the increased costs could be neutralized by changing the economic model underlying dialysis delivery, according to research published online July 9 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Thickness Predicts Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Spread

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Factors predicting metastasis of cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma include tumor thickness, horizontal size and location at the ear, according to research published online July 9 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Cancers Increasing in HIV-Infected Patients

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Although treatment advances have reduced HIV-related deaths in HIV-infected patients, they are at increasing risk of dying from cancer, and little is known about optimal treatments or the effects of combining antiretroviral and anticancer drugs, according to a review published online June 30 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Wellness Programs May Cross Ethical, Legal Boundaries

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Wellness programs provided by employers and health plan providers with incentives for participation may be pushing the limits of legality, according to an article published in the July 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Gene Mutation Associated with Atrial Fibrillation Identified

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- In a subgroup of patients with atrial fibrillation, the condition is hereditary and has been attributed to a gene mutation that encodes atrial natriuretic peptide, according to study findings published in the July 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Multiple Myeloma Family Merits Long-Term Follow-Up

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Five cases of multiple myeloma, three of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and five cases of prostate cancer across two generations of one family points to a pattern consistent with autosomal dominant transmission and warrants on-going study of the family, according to an article published in the July 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Hypertension Overlaps with Insulin Resistance Mechanism

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Hypertension may be the first step in the activation of matrix-degrading metalloproteinases and insulin receptor cleavage that leads to the development of insulin resistance, according to the results of an animal study published online July 7 in Hypertension.

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NSAIDs Improve Postoperative Neurosurgical Pain Control

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Supplementing opioid analgesics in lumbar spine surgery with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) provides better pain control than opioid analgesics alone, according to an article published in the June issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

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Spinal Fusion Outcomes Good in Community Practices

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- In non-academic settings where patients undergo lumbar spinal fusions, consistent functional improvements can be achieved and a simple and inexpensive cohort analysis can accurately measure reductions in disability, according to the results of a study published in the June issue of the Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques.

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Health Cash Incentives for Poor People Debated

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Should disadvantaged people be paid to take care of their health? That's the question of a "Head to Head" debate published online July 8 in BMJ.

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MRI Signal Intensity Needs More Study As Outcome Predictor

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Postoperative MRI signal intensity does not significantly reflect postoperative symptoms or outcomes, according to an article published in the June issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

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Swedish Seniors Are More Sexually Active

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- In 70-year-old Swedish men and women, both the quantity and quality of sex has significantly increased since the early 1970s, according to a report published online July 8 in BMJ.

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Slowed Aging Seen As Key to Future Longevity Gains

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Because most people in developed nations now reach old age in reasonably good health, and researchers have identified interventions that can postpone nearly all the diseases and disabilities that affect older people, it's time that national policy supports the development of research strategies aimed at slowing the aging process, according to an article published online July 8 in BMJ.

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FDA: Novel Genetic Test Approved for Breast Cancer

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- The SPOT-Light HER2 CISH kit -- a genetic test that measures the number of copies of the HER2 gene in breast tumor tissue -- received approval this week from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the identification of patients who might benefit from treatment with the drug Herceptin (trastuzumab).

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Insulin Resistance Linked to Peripheral Arterial Disease

TUESDAY, June 17 (HealthDay News) -- Insulin resistance is strongly associated with peripheral arterial disease, and modifies the relationship between markers of inflammation and peripheral arterial disease, according to research published online June 16 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Continuing Drug Reduces Death After Heart Failure

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Patients hospitalized for heart failure who continue to receive beta-blocker therapy after discharge have a lower risk of death than patients who withdraw from treatment or do not receive treatment, researchers report in the July 15 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Ankle Brachial Index Predicts Cardiovascular Risk

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- When a measurement of the ankle brachial index is combined with the Framingham risk score, it may result in a more accurate predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality, according to a report published in the July 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Biomarker Linked to Higher Diabetes Risk in Elderly

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- High blood levels of fetuin-A, a hepatic secretory protein that binds the insulin receptor and blocks insulin action, is associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in healthy elderly individuals, according to research published in the July 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Little Effect of Medicare Changes on Chemotherapy

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- For elderly patients receiving chemotherapy, the enactment of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) has not greatly affected patient wait times and travel distances for treatment, researchers report in the July 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Androgen Deprivation Not Helpful for Most Prostate Cancers

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer does not improve survival except in the case of poorly differentiated cancers, according to a report in the July 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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FDA Requests New Warning on Fluoroquinolone Labels

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Manufacturers of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs must add a boxed warning to the product labeling that explains the increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in those taking the drugs, according to an alert issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Tuesday. The alert also notifies manufacturers that they should provide a medication guide to warn patients about the risk.

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α-Linolenic Acid Cuts Risk of Myocardial Infarction

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Increased intake of the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid is associated with decreased risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction and increased intake of the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid is associated with reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, according to two articles published online July 7 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association and Hypertension.

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Early Intervention with Drugs Offers Migraine Relief

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Taking a single-tablet formulation of sumatriptan and naproxen sodium soon after the onset of migraine was effective and well-tolerated for treating traditional and non-traditional symptoms, according to research published in the July 8 issue of Neurology.

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Aerobic Training Reverses Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Patients randomized to aerobic interval training versus an equivalent amount of continuous moderate exercise experienced greater improvements in aerobic capacity and reversed more risk factors of the metabolic syndrome, according to an article published online July 7 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association. In a related study, full scale implementation of 11 prevention measures prevented up to two-thirds of myocardial infarctions and one-third of strokes.

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Cancer Surgery Costs Lower for High-Volume Surgeons

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- High-volume surgeons are associated with lower inpatient costs for cancer surgery than low-volume surgeons, while hospital volume has little effect, according to study findings published in the July issue of Medical Care.

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Antidepressants Increase Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Antidepressant drugs that block the serotonin reuptake mechanism -- notably selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors -- increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when used in conjunction with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, researchers report in the July issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Hypertension Treatment Beneficial in Very Elderly

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment of very elderly patients for high blood pressure may slightly lower the risk of dementia but is clearly beneficial in reducing strokes and mortality, according to research published online July 8 in The Lancet Neurology.

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Fat Hormone Predicts Coronary Artery Calcium

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of the hormone leptin secreted by fat cells and a measure of insulin resistance are strong predictors of high coronary artery calcification in healthy asymptomatic adults at risk of cardiovascular disease, according to the results of a study in the July 15 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Studies Highlight Glaucoma Treatments, Progression

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of adverse outcomes is higher following glaucoma drainage device implantation than after primary trabeculectomy or trabeculectomy with scarring; and in a largely black population with end-stage glaucoma, the prognosis for treated patients may be better than previously thought, according to the results of two studies published in the July issue of Ophthalmology.

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Resveratrol May Offer Some Dietary Restriction Benefits

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- In mice, adding resveratrol to the diet leads to gene expression patterns similar to those seen in dietary restriction, as well as decreased inflammation and increased aortic elasticity, but not increased longevity when begun at midlife, according to research published in the Aug. 6 issue of Cell Metabolism.

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Neurological Status Affects Morbidity in Cervical Fusion

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Myelopathy increases complications during cervical fusion, regardless of the surgical approach, researchers report in the July issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

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H-Y Effect Occurs in Kidney Transplantation

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Outcomes are poorer in women who receive transplanted kidneys from male donors, suggesting that an immunological H-Y effect occurs in kidney transplantation, but outcomes are the same in patients who receive either vitespen -- an adjuvant autologous therapeutic vaccine -- or observation after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, according to two studies published online July 4 in The Lancet.

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Many Severe Psoriasis Patients Undertreated

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 40 percent of severe psoriasis patients are treated with only topical agents, according to the results of a cross-sectional survey of dermatologists published in the June issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Survival Benefit Seen with Extracorporeal CPR

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was associated with improved survival rates at discharge, one month and one year following in-hospital cardiac arrest, according to an article published online July 7 in The Lancet.

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Test Provides Good Specificity for Latent Tuberculosis

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Interferon-γ-release assays (IGRAs) and tuberculin skin tests both offer high specificity for tuberculosis in populations unvaccinated with bacille Calmette-Guerin, but the IGRAs also offer high specificity in those who are vaccinated, according to research published in the Aug. 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Research Supports Surgery for Refractory Depression

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Mounting evidence suggests that depression is a network disorder instead of a condition related to perturbation of a single neurotransmitter or brain region, suggesting that surgical interventions such as deep brain stimulation may benefit selected patients with refractory depression, according to two studies published in the July issue of Neurosurgical Focus.

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Electrocardiography Effective in Pre-Athletic Screenings

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Among people seeking to obtain clinical eligibility for participation in competitive sports, exercise electrocardiography (ECG) screening can identify silent cardiovascular disorders that are undetected by resting ECG, according to the results of a study published July 3 in BMJ Online First.

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New Strategies Needed for Crohn's Disease

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Although anti-tumor necrosis factor agents have benefited patients with Crohn's disease, their variable effects demonstrate that new strategies are needed, according to a review article published in the July 5 issue of The Lancet.

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Regular Sex Reduces Risk Of Erectile Dysfunction

FRIDAY, July 4 (HealthDay News) -- Incidence of erectile dysfunction among men aged 55 to 75 years is correlated with the frequency of intercourse, and regular sex reduces the risk of impotence, according to research published in the July issue of The American Journal of Medicine.

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Eating Slowly Reduces Energy Intake, Increases Satisfaction

FRIDAY, July 4 (HealthDay News) -- Eating slowly is associated with greater satiety, increased intake of water and lower intake of calories compared to fast eating, according to the results of a study published in the July issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

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Liver Cancer Less Common with More Coffee Drinking

FRIDAY, July 4 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of coffee consumption demonstrated an inverse association with primary liver cancer, while elevated levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) increased risk in a large prospective population-based study, according to an article published in the July issue of Hepatology.

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Intervention Benefits Depressed Cancer Patients

FRIDAY, July 4 (HealthDay News) -- A nurse-delivered intervention -- Depression Care for People with Cancer -- may be a beneficial and cost-effective strategy for managing major depressive disorder in patients with cancer and other medical disorders, according to an article published in the July 5 issue of The Lancet.

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Conventional Secondhand Smoke Assessment Faulted

FRIDAY, July 4 (HealthDay News) -- In the assessment of patients exposed to secondhand smoke, measurements of biological markers may be better indicators of exposure and lung cancer risk than conventional assessment methods, researchers report in the July issue of The Lancet Oncology.

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Relaxation Practices Affect Gene Expression

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Practices such as meditation, prayer and yoga that elicit the relaxation response affect gene expression, particularly genes involved in oxidative stress, even in short-term practitioners, researchers report in the July issue of PLoS ONE.

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Bone Marker Control Benefits Hemodialysis Patients

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- In hemodialysis patients, consistent control of three markers for mineral and bone disorders -- parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus -- within guidelines established by the National Kidney Foundation is a strong predictor of survival, according to a report published online July 2 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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New Regimen More Effective for Lupus Nephritis

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- A combination of mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus and steroids is more effective than intravenous cyclophosphamide for inducing complete remission of lupus nephritis, according to an article published online July 2 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Researchers Document Process of Herpes Latency

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- The hypothesis that herpes viruses utilize microRNAs (miRNAs) to initiate and maintain latency was supported by a finding that herpes viruses are capable of downregulating key viral immediate early proteins, according to an article published online July 2 in Nature.

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Smokeless Tobacco May Be Safer Than Cigarettes

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Smokeless tobacco users probably have a lower risk of several common cancers than smokers, but a higher risk than people who use no tobacco products, according to the results of a study published in the July issue of The Lancet Oncology.

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Dementia Prevalence Increases in Oldest Women But Not Men

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of dementia doubles every five years in women aged 90 years and older but remains stable in men, according to a report published online July 2 in Neurology.

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Rosiglitazone Linked to Less Neuropathy in Diabetic Mice

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- In a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy, rosiglitazone improved a measure of thermal latency and reduced oxidative stress in the sciatic nerve, and novel transcriptional control sequences were found in genes correlated with diabetic neuropathy, according to research published online June 26 in Endocrinology.

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MYC Threshold Found for Tumor Maintenance

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- In a mouse model of lymphoma, a certain level of MYC expression is necessary to maintain tumorigenesis, and this critical threshold is marked by a shift from cellular proliferation to proliferative arrest and apoptosis, according to research published in the July 1 issue of Cancer Research.

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Combo Therapy Improves Survival in Hepatitis B

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Combining hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine significantly improves prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence, HBV-related death and all-cause mortality in the post-liver transplantation setting, according to an article published in the June issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Bar-Coded Medication System Has Shortcomings

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Bar-coded medication systems, used to reduce administration-stage medication errors, are circumvented using various methods for over 10 percent of charted medications, according to study findings published in the July/August issue of the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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Multiple Methods Improve Use of Skin Cancer Self-Exam

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Several components of the Check-It-Out trial, which entailed a multi-pronged approach to promoting thorough skin self-examination to check for melanoma, were effective, according to study findings published in the June issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Retinal Signs Predict Risk of Heart Disease in Women

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Retinal vascular caliber predicts the risk of coronary heart disease in women, but does not add much to the predictive ability of the Framingham risk score, according to a report in the July 1 issue of the American Journal of Cardiology.

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Cheap Earrings Increase Exposure to Nickel

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to nickel through wearing cheap earrings is a common occurrence in the United States and results in nickel sensitization, researchers report in the June issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. This contrasts with decreasing prevalence of nickel sensitization in Europe as a result of the European Union Nickel Directive, the authors found.

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Increase Seen in HIV Diagnoses Among Young Men

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Data from 33 states on new HIV diagnoses shows that from 2001 to 2006 there was a 12 percent rise in diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the 13 to 24 age group, according to a report published in the June 27 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Novel Drug Effective in Some Advanced Thyroid Cancers

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Use of motesanib diphosphate -- a novel oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors -- may be an effective treatment for some patients with advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer, according to research published in the July 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Endomyocardial Fibrosis Common in Mozambique

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- In a rural area of Mozambique, endomyocardial fibrosis is common among all age groups, but may not be representative of the country as a whole. Echocardiography can identify the condition while it's still asymptomatic, researchers report in the July 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Molecular Analysis Monitors Changes in Lung Cancer

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, molecular analysis of circulating tumor cells isolated from blood may be a non-invasive procedure that helps physicians monitor changes in epithelial tumor genotypes during treatment, according to the results of a study published online July 2 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Editorial

Combo Therapy Provides No Extra Benefit in Cardiac Arrest

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who receive advanced life support, the administration of vasopressin and epinephrine does not improve outcomes compared to administration of epinephrine alone, according to the results of a study published in the July 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Environmental Factors In Utero May Trigger Adult Illness

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- The long latency period between exposure to an environmental trigger and cancer has already been recognized, but the same phenomenon may apply to chronic diseases such as metabolic disease and osteoporosis, with exposure to triggers in utero and early life causing disease in adulthood, according to a report published in the July 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Smoke-Free Policies Linked to Many Health Benefits

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Smoke-free policies -- such as legislation to protect individuals from secondhand smoke -- can lead to health improvements including reduction of respiratory symptoms, and may help reduce adult and youth tobacco use, according to a report published in the July issue of The Lancet Oncology.

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Tocolytics Commonly Prescribed for Preterm Labor

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly all maternal-fetal medicine specialists in the United States recommend tocolysis in the setting of acute preterm labor, and less so for a number of other obstetric complications, according to an article published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Drug Demonstrates Efficacy in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Entecavir improved multiple efficacy endpoints compared to continued lamivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B with resistance to lamivudine, according to an article published in the July issue of Hepatology.

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High Birth Weight Linked to Rheumatoid Arthritis

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- In women, a high birth weight is independently associated with an increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

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Hormone Therapy Modifies Heart Risk of Lipoprotein(a)

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- In older women, the relationship between high lipoprotein(a) levels and cardiovascular events is modified by hormone therapy, according to study findings published in the July 8 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Editorial

Modified Mice Less Susceptible to Multiple Sclerosis

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Mice lacking a certain protein are less susceptible to developing a form of multiple sclerosis due to reduced migration of lymphocytes into the central nervous system, according to the results of a study published in the July 8 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Questionnaire Evaluates Everyday Cognition in Elderly

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- A caregiver-rated questionnaire to evaluate everyday cognitive function in the elderly is effective and can differentiate between cognitively normal and impaired individuals, according to a report in the July issue of Neuropsychology.

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Revascularization After Heart Attack Reduces Mortality

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who undergo invasive coronary revascularization during hospitalization for an acute myocardial infarction have a lower risk of death and heart failure than patients who do not undergo the procedure, researchers report in the July 1 issue of the American Journal of Cardiology.

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Risk Level Affects Coronary Syndrome Treatment in Women

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- In men and high-risk women with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS), an invasive strategy has a comparable benefit for reducing the odds of myocardial infarction, rehospitalization with acute coronary syndrome or death, although a conservative strategy seems to be more effective for low-risk women, according to study findings published in the July 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Access to Treatment Pushes HIV Mortality Rates Down

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Because of the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, mortality rates for HIV patients have declined and are now much closer to mortality rates in the general population, according to a report published in the July 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Doctors Consider Giving Up Obstetrics After Infant Death

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- While the tremendous effect of perinatal death on families is well known, perinatal death has a substantive effect on obstetric providers, according to an article published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Co-Pays for Cancer Drugs Illogical and Unworkable

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- The concept of user charges for cancer drugs, cited as a potential solution to fiscal pressures on the United Kingdom's health care system, is an "intellectually dead" idea that is both unworkable and illogical, according to a Views & Reviews article published online June 30 in BMJ.

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Editorial

Multiple Vaccines for Iraq-Bound U.K. Forces Not Harmful

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- British armed forces personnel did not suffer any adverse health effects from the multiple vaccinations they were given prior to deployment, according to research published online June 30 in BMJ.

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Tuberculosis Outbreaks Predicted from First Cases

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Large tuberculosis outbreaks occurring within two years of the initial case can be predicted based on the characteristics of the first two cases, researchers report in the July 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Editorial

Drug Reduces Fracture Risk in Men with Heart Failure

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Spironolactone, which has been shown to preserve skeletal strength in animals, is associated with a reduced risk of fracture in men with congestive heart failure, according to a report in the July 8 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Breast Cancer in Pregnancy May Have Worse Prognosis

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Compared to non-pregnancy-associated breast cancers, pregnancy-associated breast cancers present as larger tumors, at a more advanced stage, and are less likely to be hormone receptor-positive, according to an article published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Comorbid Illness Reduces Impact of Glucose Control

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Comorbid illnesses and functional impairments are more important than age alone in predicting the efficacy of intensive glucose control, researchers report in the July 1 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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New Recommendations for Quality Performance Measures

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Health care quality performance measures should be developed with the participation of end users and should take a cautious and flexible approach, according to an article published in the July 1 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Screening Pregnant Women for Bacteriuria Reaffirmed

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has reaffirmed its 2004 recommendation to screen all pregnant women at 12 to 16 weeks' gestation for asymptomatic bacteriuria but not to screen non-pregnant women or men, according to an article published in the July 1 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Population-Based Programs Key to Battling Obesity

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Population-based initiatives aimed at preventing excess weight gain complement clinical preventive strategies and treatment for obese people, according to an article published online June 30 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Cholesterol Level Linked to Poor Memory in Middle Aged

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Middle-aged individuals with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are at higher risk of poor memory and memory decline than individuals with high levels of HDL-C, according to the results of a study published online June 30 in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

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Physician's Briefing