WEDNESDAY, Sept. 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A healthy dietary pattern is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic kidney disease and albuminuria, according to a review published online Sept. 24 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.
Katrina E. Bach, from Bond University in Robina, Australia, and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 prospective and cohort studies involving 630,108 adults to examine the incidence of chronic kidney disease when the primary exposure was dietary patterns.
The researchers found moderate-certainty evidence for chronic kidney disease incidence and low-certainty evidence for estimated glomerular filtration rate decline and incident albuminuria. Lower incidence rates of chronic kidney disease and albuminuria were seen in association with a healthy dietary pattern, which typically encouraged higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, legumes, nuts, whole grains, fish, and low-fat dairy, as well as lower intakes of red and processed meats, sodium, and sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratios, 0.70 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.82] and 0.77 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.59 to 0.99], respectively). No significant correlation was seen for healthy dietary patterns and decline in glomerular filtration rate (odds ratio, 0.70; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.49 to 1.01).
"Randomized, clinical trials with sufficient follow-up time to ascertain meaningful kidney outcomes are necessary to determine whether a change in dietary patterns is causally related to favorable kidney health outcomes," write the authors of an accompanying editorial. "Meanwhile, there may be sufficient observational evidence for clinicians to emphasize the importance of healthy dietary patterns to individuals who are healthy or who are at risk of developing chronic kidney disease."