Brain Structural Changes Occur in Children with ADHD

Medication may normalize some changes

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, have changes in caudate and anterior cingulate cortex volumes that are influenced by medication treatment history, according to a report in the Sept. 26 issue of Neurology.

Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Ph.D., from the University of Texas at Austin, and colleagues used structural magnetic resonance imaging to measure caudate and anterior cingulate cortex volumes in 16 children with a history of treatment for ADHD-combined type, 14 children with ADHD-combined type who were treatment-naive, and 21 healthy controls.

Compared with controls, ADHD groups had bilateral differences in caudate volumes independent of medication history. The right anterior cingulate cortex was significantly smaller in treatment-naive ADHD children compared with ADHD-treated and control children. The anterior cingulate cortex is responsible for error processing, which is a challenge for most children with ADHD.

"The results from this study indicate a relationship of previous treatment history with caudate and anterior cingulate volumetric changes in children with ADHD-combined type," the authors conclude.

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