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April 2006 Briefing - Nursing

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Nursing for April 2006. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Asians with Large Nevi May Have Low Melanoma Risk

THURSDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Although white patients with large congenital melanocytic nevi (LCMN) can have a lifetime melanoma risk as high as 10 percent, none of 36 Asians with LCMN developed cancer after almost 17 years, according to the results of a study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Daily Combing of African Hair May Maintain Length

THURSDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- African hair tends to break off with combing, and daily combing may have the effect of a regular haircut, according to a report published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Codeine No Better Than Placebo for Cough in COPD Patients

THURSDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Although codeine is the standard by which new treatments are judged, the drug is no better than a placebo in treating coughs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to a study in the April issue of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

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Hepatitis B Virus Can Be Resistant to Adefovir

WEDNESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- A rare variant of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be resistant to the reverse-transcriptase inhibitor adefovir after initial resistance to lamivudine, according to a report in the April 27 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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FDA Warns of Danger of Oxygen Regulator Fires

WEDNESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received 12 reports of incidents in which oxygen regulators used with oxygen cylinders have exploded or burned, in some cases causing injury. The accidents appear to be caused by re-use of plastic crush gaskets designed for single use, resulting in an improper seal and oxygen leakage, according to the FDA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

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Adult Congenital Heart Disease Care in Europe Inadequate

WEDNESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Care for adults with congenital heart disease is inadequate in Europe, with only a fifth of specialist centers fulfilling all criteria for optimal care, according to a study published online April 26 in the European Heart Journal.

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Low Compliance Hinders Calcium Therapy in Elderly

TUESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Calcium supplements are not very effective for preventing bone fractures in elderly women, largely due to poor compliance, according to a report in the April 24 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Airflow Obstruction Improves with Montelukast

TUESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Asthmatic children treated with an eight-week course of montelukast have better outcomes than those who are not given the therapy, according to a study in the April issue of the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

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Weight Loss, Exercise Cut Frailty in Older Obese Adults

TUESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Moderate weight loss and exercise training improve fitness and reduce frailty in older obese adults, and should be standard therapy for such patients, according to a report in the April 24 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Not All Apple Varieties Cause Same Allergic Reaction

TUESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who are allergic to apples may not have the same adverse reaction to all varieties of the fruit, as some apples appear to be more allergenic than others, according to a study in the April issue of the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

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Most Physicians Would Halt Chemo at Patient's Request

MONDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- The majority of physicians would halt chemotherapy if a terminal cancer patient insisted, but fewer would comply with a patient's request to speed death with drugs, according to a survey of physicians in six European countries and Australia published in the April 24 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Coffee Has No Impact on Coronary Heart Disease Risk

MONDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Coffee-drinking has no significant impact on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), according to a study published in the May 2 issue of Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Depression After Heart Attack Common in Younger Women

MONDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Following a myocardial infarction, relatively young female patients have higher rates of depression than relatively young men, older men or older women, according to a study in the April 24 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Blacks Less Likely Than Whites To Trust Health Care Providers

MONDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- The scarcity of quality interactions with physicians could be one reason that black patients in the United States are less likely to trust their health care providers than white patients are, according to the results of a study published in the April 24 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine. Nearly half of black patients report low trust in health care providers, versus one-third of white patients, the authors say.

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Blood Tests More Accurate Than Skin Test in TB Diagnosis

MONDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Two blood tests, T-SPOT.TB and QuantiFERON-TB Gold, are more accurate in detecting tuberculosis (TB) than the standard tuberculin skin test, according to an article in the April 22 issue of The Lancet.

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Proportion of Preterm Births Up 22 Percent in Past Decade

MONDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- The number of preterm births in Denmark has grown dramatically -- rising 22 percent between 1994 and 2004, according to a study published in the April 22 issue of BMJ.

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Green Tea and Coffee Cut Type 2 Diabetes Risk

MONDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Drinking green tea and coffee is associated with a reduced risk for type 2 diabetes, a finding that is especially pronounced in women and overweight men, according to a study of Japanese adults reported in the April 18 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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CDC Reports U.S. Death Rate Has Fallen to Record Low

THURSDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- The United States death rate has fallen to a record low, life expectancy is increasing and the life expectancy gender gap is narrowing, according to a summary report, issued April 19 by the National Center for Health Statistics.

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Cancer Patients Have More Physical Limitations with Aging

THURSDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer patients experience a higher number of functional limitations as they age than those who have never been diagnosed with cancer, according to a report in the April issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Health care interventions are needed to help cancer patients regain or maintain physical activity as they age, the authors indicate.

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Benign Lesions Linked to Higher Risk of Anal Cancer

THURSDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- There is a significant link between benign inflammatory anal lesions and long-term risk of anal cancer, although hemorrhoids don't appear to be a risk factor, according to a study in the May issue of Gut.

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Genes Play a Role in Susceptibility to Hepatitis C

THURSDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- The presence of certain APOE gene polymorphisms may determine susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, according to a study in the May issue of Gut.

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Self-Help Measures for IBS Can Cut Primary Care Costs

THURSDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- When patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are given a self-help guidebook as part of the treatment for their condition, they visit primary care settings less frequently and report a perceived improvement in their condition, according to a study in the May issue of Gut.

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Some U.S. Foodborne Infections Drop 30-50 Percent

WEDNESDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of many foodborne infections in the United States dropped 30 to 50 percent between the mid-1990s and 2005, but stepped-up efforts are needed to fight Salmonella and other pathogens, according to data reported online April 14 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Women May Feel Shut Out of Male 'Surgery Club'

TUESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- While both men and women entering medicine may forgo a career in surgery because of perceptions about the lifestyle and workload, women are specifically deterred because of the perception that surgical culture is male-oriented, according to a report in the April issue of Archives of Surgery.

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Study Finds Wrong-Site Surgery Is Rare

TUESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- An analysis of over 2.8 million surgeries at institutions in the United States finds that while wrong-site surgery is unacceptable, it is "exceedingly rare" and major injury from it is even rarer. The results are published in the April issue of the Archives of Surgery.

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Half of Health Workers Would Work During Flu Pandemic

TUESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Only about half of public health workers say they would likely report to work during an influenza pandemic, with clinical staff more likely to report as well as those who think they would be asked to report, according to a study in the April issue of BMC Public Health.

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Cancer Patients Need Support in Talking to Their Children

TUESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Children of breast cancer patients often know something is wrong before they are told, and find their mother's chemotherapy and hair loss especially stressful, according to a study published online April 13 in BMJ, which suggests parents should get more support on discussing life-threatening illnesses with children.

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Mediterranean Diet Linked to Lower Risk of Alzheimer's

TUESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer disease, with a 40 percent reduction in risk for those most adherent, according to a study in the April issue of Annals of Neurology.

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Melanoma Recurs More Often Than Thought

TUESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Melanomas may recur more frequently than previous studies have shown, according to research published in the April issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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Sleep Study Recommended for Young Down Syndrome Kids

TUESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Obstructive sleep apnea is common in young children with Down syndrome, but parents' impressions of sleep problems do not correlate with the findings of overnight polysomnography (PSG), according to a study in the April issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery. The authors recommend baseline PSG be conducted on all 3- and 4-year-olds with Down syndrome.

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Two Methods of Glycemia Monitoring Evaluated

MONDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Two tests for glycemia in diabetes offer different ways of monitoring the disease and helping to prevent complications, according to a clinical review published in the April 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Two Airline Passengers May Have Spread Mumps

MONDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- State and federal health officials in the United States are investigating an outbreak of mumps in Iowa and other states and report that two passengers who traveled on nine commercial flights on two airlines between March 26 and April 2 may have spread the infection, according to a report published April 14 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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High Levels of Cadmium in Young Smokers

MONDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Cadmium and strontium are present at high levels in the blood of young smokers and cadmium has multiple effects on the vascular endothelium, according to a study in the April issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

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'Cytokine Storm' May Explain U.K. Clinical Trial Disaster

MONDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- The experimental antibody drug TGN1412 that caused organ failure in six British men but not in test animals may have triggered a "cytokine storm" immune reaction, according to a news report published in the April 13 issue of Nature.

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Arrhythmia Risk High in Sleep-Disordered Breathing

MONDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Complex nocturnal arrhythmias are two to four times more likely in people who have severe sleep-disordered breathing, according to a study in the April 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Helium-Oxygen Mix Improves Endurance in COPD Patients

MONDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Inhaling a mixture of helium and oxygen enables patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to walk farther with less shortness of breath, according to a study in the April 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Probiotics Can Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

FRIDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- The use of probiotics can reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile disease, according to a meta-analysis published in the April issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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Twin Study Suggests Genetic Link to Fall Risk in Elderly

FRIDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic factors may play a role in whether or not older women are susceptible to falls, according to a study in twins published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Night-Shift Work Linked to Lower Parkinson Disease Risk

FRIDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Women who regularly work rotating night shifts or who sleep for fewer hours a night than other women have a lower risk of developing Parkinson disease, according to a study in the April 15 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

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Infant Snoring Linked to Parents' Snoring in Atopic Families

THURSDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- About 15 percent of the infants of atopic parents are frequent snorers, and frequent snoring in infants is strongly associated with snoring in their parents, but not with environmental tobacco smoke, according to research published in the April issue of Chest.

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Depression in Elderly Predicts Nursing Home Admission

THURSDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- Elderly people who report themselves to be sad or depressed are significantly more likely to be admitted to a nursing home, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Replacing Some Carbs with Lean Meat Cuts Blood Pressure

THURSDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- Replacing some dietary carbohydrates with lean red meat decreases blood pressure in patients with hypertension, according to research published in the April issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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One-Third of Cancer Patients Are Malnourished

THURSDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- About a third of cancer patients are malnourished at the start of radiation treatment, which can worsen after radiotherapy, particularly in patients with head and neck cancers, according to a Turkish study in the April issue of the American Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Dietary Supplement Use Common in Cancer Patients

THURSDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- More than half of cancer patients in a veterans' hospital report using dietary supplements, with a risk existing for interactions between the supplement and prescription medications, according to a study in the April issue of the American Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Glucose Swings May Be Worse Than Chronic Hyperglycemia

TUESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Acute variations in glucose, either after meals or at other times, appears to trigger more oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes than chronic hyperglycemia, according to a study in the April 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. The findings could have "enormous clinical implications" if confirmed by larger studies, according to an editorial by Michael Brownlee, M.D., of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, and a colleague.

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Hormone Therapy Linked to Breast Cancer in Blacks

TUESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Hormone therapy is associated with an increased risk for breast cancer in black women, especially for those with a low body mass index (BMI), according to a report in the April 10 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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ACE Inhibitors Can Reduce Coronary Artery Disease Risks

TUESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and death for patients with coronary artery disease but preserved left ventricular function, according to a report in the April 10 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Prescription Drug Prices Rose at Twice Inflation in 2005

TUESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Average prices of brand-name prescription drugs used most often by older Americans rose at about twice the rate of inflation in 2005 compared with the previous year, while generic drug prices remained relatively constant, according to a report published online April 10 by the AARP.

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Epstein-Barr Antibody Titers Elevated in Multiple Sclerosis

TUESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Levels of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus are elevated 15 years to 20 years before the onset of symptoms in multiple sclerosis patients, with a four-fold increase in antibody titers associated with a doubling of the multiple sclerosis risk, according to a study published online April 10 in Archives of Neurology.

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Estrogen Increases Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

TUESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Postmenopausal women lacking a uterus are at increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism after estrogen therapy, particularly in the first two years, according to a study in the April 10 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Nurses Need More Training to Detect Delirium in Elderly

MONDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Nurses are usually able to correctly diagnose the absence of delirium in elderly patients at bedside, but may have less success in accurately diagnosing the presence of the condition, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Sleep Apnea Therapy Reverses Cardiac Structure Changes

MONDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Continuous positive airway pressure can improve symptoms and heart function in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea, according to a study in the April 4 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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For Some, Cardiac MRI Better at Predicting Heart Disease

MONDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with clinical risk factors, adenosine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is better at predicting the future risk of coronary heart disease, heart attack and death in troponin-negative patients with chest pain and acute myocardial infarction, according to a study in the April 4 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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BCG Vaccination Cost Effective for Tuberculosis Prevention

MONDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- BCG vaccination for prevention of severe childhood tuberculosis is cost effective and should be retained in high-incidence countries located in South East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and the western Pacific, according to a report in the April 8 issue of The Lancet.

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Nicotine May Reduce Efficacy of Lung Cancer Chemotherapy

FRIDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Nicotine in cigarettes or patches may block the ability of some chemotherapy drugs to kill lung cancer cells, a finding that agrees with clinical studies showing that patients who smoke have worse survival rates, according to a study published online April 6 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

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Prevnar Cuts Antibiotic Resistant S. pneumoniae Rates

WEDNESDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of antibiotic-resistant invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae declined significantly in the United States, both in vaccinated and in unvaccinated individuals, after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar) in 2000, according to a report in the April 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Report Suggests Half of Cancer Deaths Preventable

WEDNESDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- At least half of all deaths due to cancer are preventable, according to a report released Wednesday by the American Cancer Society. Tobacco use, physical inactivity, obesity and poor nutrition are the major preventable causes of cancer-related deaths, and there has been progress in some areas, but not in others, the report indicates.

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Quality of Care in Elderly Osteoarthritic Patients Low

WEDNESDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- The quality of care for community-dwelling elderly patients with osteoarthritis is low, and better counseling on medications and more use of proven therapies are needed, according to a study in the April 15 issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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MRSA Likely Transmitted in Newborn Nurseries

WEDNESDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections surfacing in healthy, full-term newborns in two hospitals in 2004 likely occurred due to transmission in the newborn nursery, according to a report published in the March 31 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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U.S. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity Rises Again

TUESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- The number of obese and overweight children and teens continues to rise, as does the number of obese men, according to data collected between 1999 and 2004 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and published in the April 5 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. One in every three adults in the United States is now obese, although there was no increase in obesity in women in the six-year period.

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Steamy Media Linked to Early Sex Among White Teens

TUESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- White teens between the ages of 12 and 14 who are exposed to a heavy sexual media diet are more than twice as likely to have had sex at ages 14 to 16, according to a study in the April issue of Pediatrics.

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Factors Predict Osteoarthritis-Related Mobility Problems

TUESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Women with lower extremity osteoarthritis are at risk of developing difficulties performing daily activities, however two potentially modifiable risk factors, high weight and lower knee extensor strength, contribute to the risk, according to a study in the April 15 issue of Arthritis Care & Research.

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Lifestyle Changes Benefit Patients With Prehypertension

TUESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension, lifestyle modifications can improve blood-pressure control and reduce the risk of chronic disease, according to a study published April 4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Long-Term Etanercept Use Safe for Elderly with RA

TUESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term use of etanercept to treat elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is safe, the drug is well-tolerated, and the risk of adverse events is no greater than in younger patients, according to a study in the March issue of the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

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Only Minority of MI Patients Receive Angioplasty

TUESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- While primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is considered the best procedure for most of the 400,000 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients seen each year in the United States, the treatment is only offered to a minority and access should be widened, according to an American Heart Association (AHA) consensus statement published online March 28 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Improvement in Two X-CGD Patients After Gene Therapy

MONDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- The use of gene therapy to replace the gp91phox gene found mutated in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) has led to clinical improvement in two affected adults, according to a report published online April 2 in Nature Medicine.

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No Significant Risk Reduction from Chest Protectors

MONDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- Twelve commercially available chest protectors typically used by young athletes do not significantly reduce the risk of ventricular fibrillation from baseball or lacrosse ball strikes, according to a study of juvenile pigs published in the March issue of Pediatrics.

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Hormone Predicts Pulmonary Hypertension in Lung Patients

MONDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- Levels of the hormone brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) can predict pulmonary hypertension and mortality in patients with chronic lung disease, according to a study in the April 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Combination Treatment Benefits COPD Patients

MONDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have less inflammation and improved lung function after treatment with a combination of the beta2-agonist salmeterol and the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate, according to a study in the April 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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