August 2006 Briefing - Obstetrics/Gynecology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in OBGYN & Women's Health for August 2006. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Polycystic Ovarian Changes Common in Type 2 Diabetes

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- In premenopausal women with type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary is common but polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is not, according to a paper in the August issue of Fertility and Sterility.

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Rat Sperm Developed in Mice Produces Healthy Pups

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have produced normal and fertile rats using rat sperm produced in mice, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

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Follicular Progesterone Linked to Early Pregnancy Loss

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Elevated follicular progesterone is associated with early pregnancy loss after natural conceptions in healthy women, according to a study published in the August issue of Fertility and Sterility.

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Ovarian Hyperstimulation Not an Endometriosis Risk

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- In women treated with assisted reproductive technology, the temporary exposure to high estrogen levels during ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization does not appear to be a significant risk factor for endometriosis recurrence, according to a study published in the August issue of Fertility and Sterility.

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Shorter Survival for Obese Ovarian Cancer Patients

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight or obesity in women with advanced ovarian tumors is associated with a shorter time to recurrence and shorter overall survival, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in Cancer.

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Nursing Infants Absorb More Soy Isoflavones Than Moms

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Isoflavones are more readily bioavailable to infants via tofu or breast milk than to their mothers, researchers report in the August issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Gene Linked to Preterm Birth in African Americans

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- A specific polymorphism in the SERPINH1 gene is found more often in people of African ancestry and is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in expectant mothers, according to a report published online Aug. 28 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

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Estrogenic Chemical Retains Carcinogenic Properties

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The estrogen-like chemical bisphenol A, a plasticizer that may be found in food packaging and dental sealants, may retain its carcinogenic properties even after being modified by body processes, according to a study in the August issue of Chemistry & Biology.

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Mortality Decreasing in Adolescents with Anorexia

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Among Swedish adolescents who are hospitalized for anorexia nervosa, mortality has significantly decreased since the late 1970s, according to a brief report published in the August issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.

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Non-Western Pregnant Women in Netherlands Lack Vitamin D

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among pregnant non-Western women living in the Netherlands, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Over-the-Counter Sales of Plan B Approved

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced on Aug. 24 that it has approved over-the-counter sales of the emergency contraceptive Plan B, also known as the "morning-after pill," to women ages 18 and older. But Plan B will continue to be a prescription-only product for women ages 17 and under.

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Skin-Sparing Mastectomy, Implants Have Low Relapse Rate

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The contemporary approach for treating breast cancer, which includes skin-sparing mastectomy and use of implants, appears oncologically safe, according to a report published in the August issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. However, the authors warn that there is a risk of postoperative complications.

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Signs of Interstitial Cystitis Can Change in Young Women

THURSDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- A negative hydrodistension in young women may not necessarily exclude the presence of interstitial cystitis because the cystoscopic appearance of the bladder wall can change over time, according to a study published in the August issue of Urology.

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Mortality Linked to BMI in Two National Cohort Studies

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Two trials, one involving more than 500,000 Americans and the other over one million Koreans, suggest that even modest amounts of excess weight in middle age is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Results of both studies are published in the Aug. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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TGFBR1 and 2 Mutations Cause Aggressive Vascular Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Mutations in the transforming growth factor beta receptors 1 and 2 (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), associated with the recently described autosomal dominant disease Loeys-Dietz syndrome, can cause aggressive and widespread vascular disease, according to a report in the Aug. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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PET May Predict Breast Cancer Spread Before Surgery

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Whole body fludeoxyglucose F 18 (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) may help predict whether breast cancer has spread to the axillary nodes before surgery, according to a new study in the August issue of Archives of Surgery.

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U.S. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Decreasing

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- The seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the primary cause of genital herpes, has significantly declined since the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United States, especially among teenagers, according to a study in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Study Finds 8 Percent Rupture Rate for Breast Implants

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Fewer than 10 percent of Inamed brand silicone implants ruptured over an 11-year period, according to a company-funded study published in the August issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

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Angina Care Can Top $1 Million During a Woman's Lifetime

MONDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Angina may be the greatest driver of women's cardiovascular health care costs, and non-obstructive coronary artery disease is no exception, according to results from the National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation, published online Aug. 21 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Carotenoids May Cut Macular Degeneration Risk in Women

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- High intake of two carotenoids -- lutein and zeaxanthin -- found in foods such as leafy green vegetables, corn and egg yolks, reduce the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, or AMD, in women under 75 years of age, according to a report in the August issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

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Chinese Women At Risk from Husbands' Smoking

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Chinese women are often exposed to secondhand smoke, primarily from their husbands, which increases their risk of death from lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, according to the results of a study published in the Aug. 19 issue of BMJ.

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China's One-Child Policy Has Led to Gender Imbalance

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- China's one-child family policy has resulted in a reduction in the country's total birth rate and in family size, but the country is also experiencing a huge imbalance in the ratio of male to female births, according to research published in the Aug. 19 issue of BMJ.

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Americans Support Better Coordination of Health Care

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Survey results suggest that Americans strongly support better coordination of health care and that rising medical costs are a serious concern for many low- and middle-income people. The survey, conducted on behalf of The Commonwealth Fund, also found that many people support fundamental changes or a complete rebuilding of the health care system.

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Socioeconomic Status Linked to Late-Life Disability

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- While the link between extreme poverty and poor health has long been recognized, a new report in the Aug. 17 New England Journal of Medicine extends the socioeconomic disparity to functional limitation and disability later in life.

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Light-at-Night Study Produces Inconsistent Results

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Evidence is mixed in support of the light-at-night hypothesis, which proposes that exposure to artificial lighting at night could increase women's breast cancer risk by suppressing the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin, according to a study in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

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Link Between Smoking While Pregnant and Overweight Kids

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Mothers who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have overweight or obese children than mothers who do not smoke during pregnancy, according to a new longitudinal analysis in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

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Neonatal MRI May Predict Outcomes in Preterm Infants

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help predict adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in very preterm infants, according to a study in the Aug. 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Lower Overall Mortality Seen in Breast-Implant Patients

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Women with breast implants have lower overall mortality but higher suicide rates compared to the general population, according to the results of a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

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Leptin May Inhibit Uterine Contractility

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- High leptin levels in overweight and obese pregnant women may inhibit uterine contractility and help explain why such women are more likely to have unsuccessful vaginal deliveries and a high rate of Caesarean sections, according to the results of an in vitro study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Trastuzumab May Cause Cardiac Toxicity

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- In women with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, trastuzumab can cause cardiac toxicity, which can be reversed with beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors. Additional trastuzumab treatment can be considered after recovery of cardiac function, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Chemo Effects Under-Reported in Breast Cancer Patients

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Chemotherapy-related adverse events among younger breast cancer patients may be more common than previously reported in clinical trials and may lead to more health care expenses, according to a study in the Aug. 16 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Levels of Birth Fat Predict Estradiol in Adulthood

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Women who have more body fat at birth do not exhibit ovarian suppression after moderate physical exercise and have higher levels of estradiol as adults compared to women with less body fat, which may reduce fertility and increase cancer risk, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

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Irradiation to Left Breast Ups Risk of Heart Disease

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer patients who receive irradiation to their left side are more likely to develop heart disease in the ensuing two decades than their counterparts who receive right-side irradiation, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Doctors' Views on Disclosure of Errors Varies Widely

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- There is a wide variation across the medical profession when it comes to disclosing medical errors to patients, with the visibility of the error and medical specialty both playing a role, according to two studies in the August 14/28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Effect of Financial Incentives on Quality of Care Unclear

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Studies examining the effect of financial incentives on quality of health care have shown mixed results, and ongoing monitoring of these programs is essential to determine their effectiveness, according to a report in the Aug. 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Women Under-Report Breast Cancer on Their Paternal Side

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Women may be more likely to report a family history of breast cancer on their maternal side than on their paternal side, suggesting that self-reported family history of the disease may be suboptimal, according to a report published in the September issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Fetal Pulmonary Artery Diameter Predicts Morbidity

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Antenatal pulmonary artery diameter measurements may be useful as predictors of respiratory morbidity in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), according to a study in the August issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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About Four Percent of Teens Have Traded Sex for Money

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- About four percent of U.S. adolescents have traded sex for money or drugs, possibly leading to health problems such as depression or sexually transmitted infections, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.

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Teens Often Use Condoms Incorrectly

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Teens who use condoms often fail to use them correctly, applying them too late or removing them too early, according to a U.K. study published online Aug. 10 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.

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Congenital Heart Block Linked to Maternal Antibodies

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Congenital heart block is caused by maternal antibodies that interfere with the clearance of dead and dying fetal cardiocytes that eventually leads to excessive scarring and inflammation, according to a report published online Aug. 10 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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Ovarian Failure Rare After Surgery for Endometriosis

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- There is a low but definite risk of postsurgical ovarian failure immediately after surgery for bilateral endometriomas, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Excessive Ultrasound Leads to Abnormal Neuronal Migration

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A small but significant number of neurons in the embryonic mouse brain do not migrate to their proper position after excessively long exposures to ultrasound waves, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

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Laser Therapy May Benefit Women with Polycystic Ovaries

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovarian interstitial laser-coagulation treatment may stimulate ovulation and improve pregnancy rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), according to the results of a small study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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High-Grade Cervical Lesions May Merit Immediate Action

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Women who test positive for the human papillomavirus (HPV) and have high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) are at high risk of progressing to CIN3, according to a study in the August issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Gene Models Agree in Predicting Breast Cancer Phenotype

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Even though many prognostic gene-profiling tools for primary breast cancer use different sets of genes to make predictions, they seem to have good concordance and may be measuring similar biological phenotypes, according to a report in the Aug. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Anastrozole Benefits Elderly ER+ Breast Cancer Patients

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Aromatase inhibitors are an effective treatment for breast cancer in elderly women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), invasive tumors, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Endometriosis Recurrence Higher If Disease Site Deep

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of recurrence after surgery for endometriosis is higher if the disease site is deep, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Program Delays Eating Disorders in Some Women

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- An Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention can significantly reduce the onset of eating disorders in certain high-risk college-age women, according to a study in the August issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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HIV Prevention Program for Latino Adolescents Effective

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Latino adolescents participating in a culture- and theory-based HIV prevention program report less sexual intercourse, fewer partners and increased condom use, according to a study in the August issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Younger, Older Teens View Pregnancy Differently

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Younger teens view pregnancy differently than older teens, with more of the former believing a baby can enhance relationships, but also more inclined to expect upheaval, according to a report in the August issue of Pediatrics.

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Family Critics Take Toll on Weight-Conscious Women

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Criticism about weight gain from family members can have long-lasting, negative emotional effects on college-aged women already concerned about their weight, according to a report in the August issue of Pediatrics.

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Birth Defect Risk Higher from Valproate Use in Epilepsy

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who use the antiepileptic drug valproate are at greater risk for teratogenic effects than those who take other antiepilepsy medications, according to a report in the August issue of Neurology.

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Females Have Higher Hepatitis C Virus Infection Clearance

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Women who are infected with hepatitis C virus may be more likely than men to have spontaneous viral clearance, according to a study of Egyptian patients in the August issue of the journal Gut.

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Clinical Exam Not Accurate for Detecting Breech Fetus

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Non-cephalic, including breech, presentation fetuses are not accurately diagnosed in later pregnancy by clinical examination and ultrasound may be required, particularly for obese women, according to a study published online Aug. 4 in BMJ.

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Female Life Scientists Less Likely to Hold Patents

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Female life-science faculty members patent their work at about 40 percent of the rate of their male counterparts, but the gender gap is improving, according to a study published in the Aug. 4 edition of Science.

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Abortion Training Rates Similar in U.S. and Canada

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Only half of Canadian and U.S. obstetrics and gynecology residency programs offer routine training in elective abortion procedures, according to two studies published in the Aug. 1 issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Incontinence in First Pregnancy Linked to Risk Later in Life

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Women with stress urinary incontinence during a first pregnancy or shortly after giving birth are at increased risk of having stress incontinence 12 years later, according to a report in the Aug. 1 issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Colposcopy Sensitivity Depends on Multiple Biopsies

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- The sensitivity of colposcopically guided biopsies does not differ significantly by type of medical training, but is greater when two or more biopsies are taken, according to study findings published in the August issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Smoking May Raise Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk in Women

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- In women without genetic predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), smoking raises the risk of developing the disease, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

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Anastrozole May Be Best for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Among postmenopausal women who have undergone surgery for early-stage breast cancer, anastrozole (Arimidex) is more tolerable and has a better risk-benefit profile than tamoxifen, according to a study in the August issue of The Lancet Oncology.

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Topotecan Fails to Improve Ovarian Cancer Outcomes

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with advanced ovarian cancer, the addition of topotecan to standard chemotherapy does not improve outcomes, and the drug is not recommended as a standard of care treatment, according to the results of a phase III study in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Older Women Still Benefit from Cervical Cancer Screening

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Postmenopausal women who are sexually active but not married or living as married may have a higher risk of cervical cancer than other women their age, most likely due to human papillomavirus infection from a new partner, according to a report in the August issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology. In addition, the study found that estrogen plus progestin increases the incidence of cytological abnormalities in postmenopausal women, but not high-grade lesions or cervical cancer.

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Marijuana Ingredient May Affect Early Pregnancy

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay) -- Exposure to the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), interferes with complex signaling and preimplantation events in early pregnancy and may negatively affect outcomes, according to a study in mice published in the August issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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Small Group of Physicians Are Frequent Expert Witnesses

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- In most neurologic birth injury lawsuits, a small group of physicians act as frequent expert witnesses, and plaintiff witnesses tend to have fewer publications and are less likely to have subspecialty board certification than defendant witnesses, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Domestic Violence Screening Accuracy Varies by Method

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Screening methods for intimate partner violence vary by accuracy, completeness and acceptability, according to a report published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Participants were least accepting of the face-to-face approach.

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Tumor Suppressor Variant Linked to Breast Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- A specific variation in the tumor suppressor and DNA-damage regulating gene, CHEK2, may triple a woman's lifetime risk for breast cancer, according to a report published online July 31 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Race May Determine Persistence of HPV Infection

TUESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- European variants of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 persist longer in white women and African variants persist longer in African American women, according to a study in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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FDA Says It Will Work Towards OTC Status for Plan B

TUESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced that it is moving towards resolving policy issues that have kept the emergency contraception Plan B from over-the-counter (OTC) sales for several years.

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Morning is Better Than Evening for Labor Induction

TUESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Women admitted to the hospital in the morning for induced labor are less likely to need operative vaginal birth or oxytocin infusion than those admitted in the evening, according to a study in the August issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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