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November 2007 Briefing - Obstetrics/Gynecology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in OBGYN & Women's Health for November 2007. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Study Explores Timing of Sexual Debut on Outcomes

FRIDAY, Nov. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Early initiation of sexual activity among adolescents is associated with long-term negative sexual outcomes such as increased sexual risk behaviors and problems in sexual functioning, reports an article published online Nov. 29 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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Myths Contributing to Continuing HIV Epidemics

FRIDAY, Nov. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Ten misconceptions are hindering HIV prevention efforts in Africa, according to a commentary published in the Dec. 1 issue of The Lancet.

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Chlamydia Rapid Test Provides Rapid, Accurate Results

FRIDAY, Nov. 30 (HealthDay News) -- The new Chlamydia Rapid Test can quickly and accurately detect chlamydia infections, and allow for same-day treatment, according to a report published online Nov. 30 in BMJ Online First.

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Progesterone, Estrogen Show Promise in Alzheimer's Study

THURSDAY, Nov. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Estrogen and progesterone, taken together or separately, may cut the risk of Alzheimer's disease in postmenopausal women, according to the results of a study in mice published in the Nov. 28 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

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Careful Lamotrigine Monitoring Needed in Pregnancy

THURSDAY, Nov. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnancy-related changes in drug metabolism lead to increased clearance of lamotrigine (Lamictal) and resultant lower drug levels, which means that pregnant women may experience seizure worsening if their drug levels are not carefully monitored, according to an article published online Nov. 28 in Neurology.

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FDA: Myfortic Changed to Pregnancy Category D

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Novartis announced this week that use of the immunosuppressant Myfortic (mycophenolic acid) delayed-release tablets is associated with increased risks of pregnancy loss and congenital malformations, and the pregnancy category for Myfortic has thus been changed from category C to category D, indicating evidence of fetal harm. Myfortic is used for prophylaxis of organ rejection in renal transplant patients, in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

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Arsenic Exposure Leaves Biomarkers in Newborns

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure of pregnant women to arsenic results in clearly identifiable and highly predictive gene expression changes in their newborns, researchers report in the November issue of PLoS Genetics.

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High-Trauma Fractures Linked to Osteoporosis

TUESDAY, Nov. 27 (HealthDay News) -- New research shows that high-trauma fractures in older individuals are associated with low bone mineral density and increase the risk of subsequent fractures, while a new clinical algorithm can help predict the five-year risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. These research findings are published in two studies in the Nov. 28 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Model Predicts Higher Breast Cancer Risk in Black Women

TUESDAY, Nov. 27 (HealthDay News) -- A new model to predict breast cancer risk for counseling and clinical trials gives higher risk estimates for black women compared with a widely used model, according to the results of a study published in the Dec. 5 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Carb-Rich Diets May Increase Risk of Diabetes in Women

MONDAY, Nov. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Carbohydrate-rich and high glycemic index diets are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in Chinese and black women, whereas adding cereal fiber to the diet may protect against diabetes in black women, according to two studies published Nov. 26 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Depression Linked to Low Bone Mass in Younger Women

MONDAY, Nov. 26 (HealthDay News) -- In premenopausal women, the presence of major depressive disorder may be associated with lower bone mineral density, according to a report published in the Nov. 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Doctors and Patients Have Different Perception of Herpes

MONDAY, Nov. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Although patients with genital herpes and their doctors have similar attitudes toward some aspects of the disease, they also have very different perspectives on treatment and management, according to a study published online Nov. 22 in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.

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Early Life Experience Has Little Bearing on Later Activity

MONDAY, Nov. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Few characteristics of early childhood are reliable predictors of physical activity in 11- and 12-year-old children, according to a report published Nov. 23 in BMJ Online First.

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Fatigue, Headaches Common at 11 Weeks After Childbirth

MONDAY, Nov. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Eleven weeks after giving birth, new mothers still had an average of 4.1 childbirth-related symptoms, most often fatigue, according to a prospective cohort study published in the November/December issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Breast Cancer Pain Worse Among Non-White Women

MONDAY, Nov. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Non-white women experience more severe pain from breast cancer than white women, and pain interferes more with their daily activities, according to a report published online Nov. 26 in the journal Cancer.

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Cigarette Smoking May Impact Fertility of Female Offspring

MONDAY, Nov. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Female mice exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), toxic chemicals found in cigarette smoke, have female offspring with depleted ovarian follicles, according to the results of a study published online Nov. 21 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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Sleep Deprived Mothers Struggle to Lose Weight

FRIDAY, Nov. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Mothers of 6-month-old babies who get only five hours' sleep a night or less are more likely than their rested counterparts to retain at least 5 kg of the extra weight they gained during pregnancy, according to a study published online Oct. 29 in the American Journal of Epidemiology.

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FDA Warns About Potential Concerns with Chantix

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Due to reports of suicidal ideation and other concerns in patients who have taken Chantix (varenicline), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is urging health care providers to monitor behavior and mood changes in patients taking the smoking cessation medication.

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Cannabidiol Shows Promise Against Breast Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid constituent, may inhibit breast cancer proliferation and invasion by decreasing Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells, according to research published in the November issue of Molecular Cancer Therapeutics.

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Women with 'Constitutional Thinness' Have Bone Problems

MONDAY, Nov. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Young adult women who fit the diagnostic criteria for constitutional thinness have a bone mineral density similar to that of young women with anorexia nervosa and significantly lower than that of normal weight women, researchers report in the December issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Obesity, Multiple Gestations May Be Factors in Stillbirths

FRIDAY, Nov. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Advanced maternal age, nulliparity, obesity and multiple gestations may be factors in a reported increase of stillbirths in some parts of the developed world, according to a report in the Nov. 17 issue of The Lancet.

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Human Examiner Holds Edge for Judging Adnexal Masses

FRIDAY, Nov. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Experienced examiners recognizing patterns on ultrasounds of adnexal masses -- ovarian, paraovarian or tubal -- did a better job at classifying the tumors as benign or malignant compared with a blood sample tested for serum CA-125, according to research presented in the Nov. 21 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Ovarian Cancer Survival High After Taxane Chemo

THURSDAY, Nov. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The five-year recurrence-free survival after adjuvant taxane-carboplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer is 79 percent, according to the results of a Swedish study published in the November/December issue of the International Journal of Gynecological Cancer.

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Gail Model Predicts ER+ Breast Cancer Risk, But Not ER-

THURSDAY, Nov. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The Gail model for predicting invasive breast cancer risk identified postmenopausal women at higher risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cancers but not ER-negative ones, according to research in the Nov. 21 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Mortality Risk of Late-Preterm Babies Lasts Through Infancy

THURSDAY, Nov. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Babies born at late-preterm, between 34 and 36 weeks' gestation, have higher mortality rates than their term-born counterparts that persist throughout infancy, according to study findings published in the November issue of the Journal of Pediatrics.

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Female Heavy Smokers Have Increased Risk of Hypertension

THURSDAY, Nov. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Female smokers are at increased risk of hypertension but the association is modest, according to research published in the Nov. 20 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Physicians Uncertain How to Interact with Diverse Patients

THURSDAY, Nov. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Many health professionals are uncertain how to deal with patients of different races and ethnicities, leading to disempowerment that may inadvertently contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in health care delivery, according to a study published in the November issue of PLoS Medicine.

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Teriparatide More Effective for Drug-Induced Osteoporosis

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Teriparatide, a recombinant human parathyroid hormone, is more effective than alendronate, a bisphosphonate, in improving bone mineral density and reducing fractures in patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, according to a report in the Nov. 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Alcohol Binge in Pregnancy May Affect Fetal Brain

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Binge drinking during pregnancy -- defined as consuming five or more alcoholic beverages in a single setting -- is not consistently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, with the exception of a possible effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes, according to a systematic review published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health in December.

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Decision Aid Improves Treatment of Acute Cystitis

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- A simplified three-item decision aid could help physicians avoid unnecessary antibiotic drug prescriptions and urine culture testing in women with symptoms of acute cystitis, according to a study published in the Nov. 12 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Genes Predict Chemo Response in Breast Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Two chemotherapy regimen-specific gene signatures are highly accurate in predicting which patients are not likely to respond to these treatments, according to research published online Nov. 14 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Exercise Program May Benefit Women with Fibromyalgia

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- A program of walking, stretching and simple strength-training exercises appears to benefit women with fibromyalgia, particularly when combined with education in fibromyalgia self-management, according to research published in the Nov. 12 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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BRCA1 Gene Modulates Estrogen Receptor Expression

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- The BRCA1 gene plays a critical role in estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression, which explains why most BRCA1-mutant breast cancers are ER-negative, according to research published in the Nov. 21 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Cases of Alcohol Binge-Related Bladder Rupture Described

FRIDAY, Nov. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Clinicians should consider bladder rupture as a potential cause of abdominal pain in women who report binge drinking, according to an article published in the Nov. 10 issue of BMJ.

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Current Oral Contraceptive Use Linked to Cervical Cancer

FRIDAY, Nov. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Current users of oral contraceptives have an almost double risk of developing cervical cancer compared to never-users and the risk declines after oral contraceptives are discontinued, but the mechanisms are unclear, researchers report in the Nov. 10 issue of The Lancet.

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Intervention Program Reduces Postnatal Depression

FRIDAY, Nov. 9 (HealthDay News) -- A multi-component intervention may significantly benefit depressed, low-income mothers with newborn children who live in resource-poor countries, according to a report published in the Nov. 10 issue of The Lancet.

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Workplace Inequalities Exist Among Those with HIV

FRIDAY, Nov. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Among those with chronic HIV disease, women and those with less education are more likely than men or those with higher education to lose their jobs, according to a report published online Nov. 2 in Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

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Sex Abroad Points to Riskier Sexual Lifestyle

THURSDAY, Nov. 8 (HealthDay News) -- One-fifth of young travelers from the United Kingdom find sexual partners while overseas, and are putting themselves at increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, according to a report published online Nov. 8 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.

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Caffeine Therapy Beneficial in Apnea of Prematurity

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7 (HealthDay News) -- In very low birth weight infants with apnea of prematurity, caffeine therapy increases the odds of survival without neurodevelopmental disability at 18 to 21 months, according to a report published in the Nov. 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Prenatal Drug Therapy Reduces HIV Drug Resistance

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7 (HealthDay News) -- In pregnant women infected with HIV, a single dose of tenofovir and emtricitabine administered at delivery as an adjunct to nevirapine results in reduced resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors six weeks after delivery, according to study findings published online Nov. 7 in The Lancet.

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Cervix-Sparing Hysterectomy Requires Careful Screening

MONDAY, Nov. 5 (HealthDay News) -- A method of hysterectomy in which the cervix is not removed should only be offered to women deemed to be low risk for cervical or endometrial cancer, and patients electing this method should be counseled regarding the lack of evidence demonstrating benefits over total hysterectomy, according to a report published in the November issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Parent's Cancer Survival May Predict Child's Cancer Survival

MONDAY, Nov. 5 (HealthDay News) -- When a parent and a child both contract lung, colorectal, breast or prostate cancer, the post-diagnosis survival of the parent may predict the post-diagnosis survival of the child, researchers report in the November issue of The Lancet Oncology.

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Heart Disease Risk Assessment Should Look at Pre-Eclampsia

FRIDAY, Nov. 2 (HealthDay News) -- When assessing women for risk of cardiovascular disease, history of pre-eclampsia should be taken into account, and women with cardiovascular disease may be more prone to pre-eclampsia, according to two studies published online Nov. 1 in BMJ.

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Cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Eludes Scientists

FRIDAY, Nov. 2 (HealthDay News) -- While public health initiatives have made strides in reducing the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), it is unlikely to be eliminated until the cause of SIDS is understood, posits a review article published in the Nov. 3 issue of The Lancet.

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Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants Deemed Mostly Safe

THURSDAY, Nov. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Silicone gel-filled breast implants are generally safe, but are associated with an increased risk of suicide, according to study findings published in the November issue of the Annals of Plastic Surgery.

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Dietary Factors, Lifestyle Linked to Better Fertility

THURSDAY, Nov. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Women who follow a so-called "fertility diet" style of eating may enjoy a lower risk of infertility due to disordered ovulation, according to research published in the November issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Anxiety, Depression Common During Pregnancy

THURSDAY, Nov. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Anxiety and depression are common during pregnancy and increase the risk of postpartum depression, according to a report in the November issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Study Explores Impact of Breast-Feeding on Lung Growth

THURSDAY, Nov. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Longer breast-feeding appears to positively influence lung growth in children of non-asthmatic mothers, whereas breast-feeding in children of mothers with asthma is associated with impaired measures of lung function in later childhood, according to study findings published in the November issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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