September 2007 Briefing - Obstetrics/Gynecology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in OBGYN & Women's Health for September 2007. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Vitamin D Deficiency Common in Babies of Moms at Risk

FRIDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Newborn infants of mothers with dark skin or those wearing concealing clothing, such as a veil, are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency at birth, according to study findings published in the Archives of Disease in Childhood in September.

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Breast Cancer Mortality Continues to Drop

THURSDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer death rates continue to drop in the United States, likely due to advances in early detection and treatment. Yet significant racial disparity persists, with black patients 36 percent more likely to die of the disease than whites, according to a report released from the American Cancer Society on Sept. 25.

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Operative Delivery Techniques Offer Varying Success Rates

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Cases of operative vaginal delivery that utilize vacuum extraction are more likely to fail than those using forceps, and in most instances of failed vacuum extraction, the practitioner then attempts a forceps delivery, according to research presented in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Fetal Exposure to Isotretinoin Entails Substantial Risks

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- There is no safe level of exposure to isotretinoin during pregnancy, according to a review of the medical literature in the September issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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Preterm Twins May Predict Preterm Singletons

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Women who deliver preterm twins may have a fivefold higher risk of preterm delivery in a subsequent singleton pregnancy than women who deliver full-term twins, according to study findings published in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Prognosis of Bilateral Breast Cancer Varies with Timing

TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Younger women diagnosed with bilateral breast cancer within five years after first cancer diagnosis have more than triple the risk of death than unilateral breast cancer patients, whereas women developing a second cancer after 10 years have a similar prognosis to unilateral breast cancer patients, researchers report in the Sept. 20 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Prompt Replacement May Work in Some Implant Infections

TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The traditional approach to breast infections following implant surgery entails removing the implant and waiting until the infection clears to replace it. However, surgical exchange of the implant without delay may be appropriate in some patients who have had breast reconstruction following mastectomy, according to a presentation of cases in the Sept. 1 issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

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High-Altitude Ancestry Found Helpful for Fetal Growth

TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Multi-generational high-altitude populations appear to have more protection against hypoxia-associated reductions in fetal growth than populations who are relatively new to a high-altitude region, according to the results of a study published in the September issue of the Archives of Disease in Childhood -- Fetal and Neonatal Edition.

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Familiar Doctor Linked to More Satisfaction for Urgent Care

TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who receive urgent medical care from family physicians or after-hours clinics affiliated with their physicians are more likely to be satisfied with the encounter than patients who use other sources of urgent care, according to research published in the September/October issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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One-Fifth of U.S. Adults Get Preventive Health Exams

MONDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Approximately 44.4 million U.S. adults receive a preventive health exam each year at a total cost to the health care system of almost $8 billion, despite the fact that major clinical organizations do not recommend them, according to research published in the Archives of Internal Medicine on Sept. 24.

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Hormone Therapy Does Not Improve Cognition or Memory

MONDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Combined estrogen/progestin hormone therapy in newly postmenopausal women does not appear to affect cognition, but may worsen memory, according to a report published in the Sept. 25 issue of Neurology.

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Many Women Unfamiliar with 'Women's Health' Findings

MONDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Despite the widespread publicity of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial published in 2002 -- which found that the risk-benefit ratio of estrogen plus progestin made it an unwise choice for preventing disease -- only a minority of women were aware of these results two years later, researchers report in the September/October issue of Menopause.

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MicroRNAs Regulate a Gene Critical for Pregnancy in Mice

FRIDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Two microRNAs, small molecules important in regulating gene expression, regulate the expression, timing and localization of a gene critical for embryo implantation in mice, according to a study published in the Sept. 18 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Placental Pathology Differs by Smoking Status in Abruption

FRIDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- The placental pathology of women who have pregnancies complicated by abruption differs depending on smoking status, with intervillous thrombus more common in smokers and placental infarcts more common in non-smokers, researchers report in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Methamphetamine Use in Pregnancy Detectable in Hair

FRIDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Mothers who use methamphetamine during pregnancy can transfer the drug through the placenta to their babies, according to a report in the September issue of the Archives of Disease in Childhood -- Fetal and Neonatal Edition.

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Silicone Implants Do Not Lead to Paraproteinemias

FRIDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Women with silicone implants who subsequently developed connective-tissue disease do not appear to be at increased risk for paraproteinemias, according to study findings published in Arthritis Research & Therapy in September.

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Repeat Prenatal Low-Dose Corticosteroids Probably Safe

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids do not significantly increase the risks for major adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes or delayed growth in children, but higher doses may be linked to an increased rate of cerebral palsy, according to two studies published in the Sept. 20 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Secondhand Smoke May Disturb Sleep in Pregnancy

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who are exposed to secondhand smoke have more sleep disturbances, such as problems initiating sleep and staying asleep, than pregnant women who are not exposed to smoke, according to a report in the September issue of Sleep.

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Fertility Rates in Swedish Diabetic Women Normalized

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Measures to reduce pregnancy complications among Swedish women with type 1 diabetes over the past 20 years have normalized fertility rates among those without diabetic complications, researchers report in the September issue of Diabetes Care.

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Medical Schools Vary in Approach to Case Reports

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Most medical school institutional review boards (IRBs) don't treat individual case reports as "research," as it's defined by the United States Government Code of Federal Regulations, according to a research letter published in the Sept. 19 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Zoledronic Acid Cuts Mortality After Hip Fracture

TUESDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with low-trauma hip fracture, an annual infusion of zoledronic acid starting within 90 days of surgical repair of the fracture may decrease the risk of new fractures and improve survival, according to a study published online Sept. 17 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Risk May Outweigh Benefit of Prenatal Screen for Gaucher's

TUESDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal screening for Gaucher disease, an inherited disorder with a variable phenotype, results in the pregnancy termination of a modest number of affected fetuses, including some that are likely to have had asymptomatic or mild disease, according to a report published in the Sept. 19 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Few Women Counseled About Teratogenic Medications

TUESDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- One in six women of reproductive age fills a prescription for a potentially teratogenic medication each year, yet only half receive contraceptive counseling from their health care providers, according to a report in the Sept. 18 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Woman's Gallbladder Removed Through Vagina

MONDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- A team of surgeons has removed a woman's gallbladder through her vagina, with a quick recovery and no pain or scars, according to a case report published in the September issue of the Archives of Surgery.

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Interstitial Cystitis Patients Often Have History of Abuse

MONDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with interstitial cystitis are more likely to report histories of abuse than other patients, researchers report in the September issue of the Journal of Urology.

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FDA Approves Evista to Prevent Invasive Breast Cancer

MONDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved raloxifene (Evista) for the prevention of invasive breast cancer in high-risk, postmenopausal women as well as those postmenopausal women taking the drug to prevent osteoporosis.

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Short Interpregnancy Interval Raises Preterm Birth Risk

THURSDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Short pregnancy intervals are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth after adjusting for age and other factors, researchers report in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Purging Disorder Differs from Bulimia Nervosa

THURSDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Purging disorder, a compulsion to self-induce vomiting without previous binge eating, is an eating disorder in its own right and is distinct from bulimia nervosa, according to a report in the September issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Linked to Reproductive Failure

THURSDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Age-associated increases in follicle-stimulating hormone may accelerate female reproductive failure despite no exhaustion of ovarian reserve, according to the results of an animal study published in the September issue of Endocrinology.

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Antioxidants May Curb Bone Loss After Menopause

THURSDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Postmenopausal women have an increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) that can lead to bone loss, but this process could potentially be blocked by antioxidants or an immunosuppressant, according to the results of a study in mice published online Sept. 11 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Drug to Prevent Preterm Birth May Raise Diabetes Risk

THURSDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Using 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) to prevent recurrent preterm delivery may raise the risk of gestational diabetes, according to a report in the September issue of Diabetes Care.

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Cerclage May Not Improve Outcome in Low-Risk Women

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who are at low risk of premature delivery and have a cervical length of 25 millimeters or less early in the second trimester aren't likely to have a better outcome with cerclage placement, according to a report in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Breastfeeding Does Not Reduce Allergy, Asthma Risk

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Neither extended nor exclusive breast-feeding have an impact on the risk of allergy and asthma development in children, according to research published online Sept. 11 in BMJ.

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Birth Control Pills Associated with Lower Cancer Risk

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Taking oral contraceptive pills may reduce the overall risk of developing certain types of cancer, according to the results of a study published online Sept. 11 in BMJ.

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Dip in U.S. Folate Levels Not a Cause for Concern

TUESDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Since fortification of cereals began in the United States in the 1990s, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations have increased overall. Although there was a dip in levels from 1999 to 2004, it did not dent the overall impact of adding folic acid to foodstuffs, especially among women of childbearing age, according to a report published in the September issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Vitamin E May Protect Women Against Blood Clots

MONDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin E may protect women from the risk of venous thromboembolism, particularly those with a history of emboli or a genetic susceptibility, according to study findings published online Sept. 10 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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U.S. Teen, Young Adult Suicide Rates Are on the Rise

FRIDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Youth and young-adult suicides steadily declined for 13 years in the United States, then jumped by 8 percent in 2003-2004, particularly among teenage girls, according to a report in the Sept. 7 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Nightmares Common in Pregnant, Postpartum Patients

THURSDAY, Sept. 6 (HealthDay News) -- It is common for pregnant women and mothers of newborns to have dreams in which their infant is in danger, according to a report published in the September issue of Sleep.

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Exercise Improves Health in Women with Breast Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Exercise and yoga improve health and quality of life in women with early-stage breast cancer, according to two studies published online Sept. 4 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Family Involvement Boosts Teens' Odds of Beating Bulimia

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents with bulimia nervosa who receive family-based treatment may be more likely to become binge-and-purge abstinent, according to a report published in the September issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Modern IUDs Are Safe and Effective, But Often Underused

TUESDAY, Sept. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Today's intrauterine devices (IUDs) are widely available, inexpensive and safe, but are underused in developed nations because of perceptions that they cause pain and heavy menstrual bleeding, according to an editorial comment published in the Sept. 1 issue of BMJ.

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Nicotine in Breast Milk Affects Infants' Sleep Patterns

TUESDAY, Sept. 4 (HealthDay News) -- The breast milk of lactating smokers contains significant amounts of nicotine that has short-term effects on their infants' sleep/wake patterns, according to a report published in the September issue of Pediatrics.

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Breast Cancer Screening Reassuring for At-Risk Women

MONDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Young women with a family history of breast cancer are reassured by annual mammograms and take false positive results in stride, according to a report published in the Sept. 1 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Parental Smoking May Damage Women's Reproductive Health

MONDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Women who were exposed to secondhand smoke before birth or during their childhood may experience poorer reproductive health as adults, researchers report in the Sept. 1 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

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