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April 2012 Briefing - Pathology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for April 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Prenatal Insecticide Exposure Alters Developing Brain

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, correlates with structural changes in the developing brain, according to a study published online April 30 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Genetic Link Identified for Multiple Forms of Glaucoma

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Two genomic regions have been identified that are associated with normal-pressure glaucoma (NPG) and optic nerve disease in exfoliation-syndrome glaucoma (ESG), possibly through the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway, according to a study published online April 26 in PLoS Genetics.

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Early Axonal Dysfunction Precedes Diabetic Neuropathy

FRIDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Early axonal dysfunction may be detected prior to the development of clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, according to a study published online April 20 in Diabetes.

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Berries May Slow Cognitive Decline in Older Women

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Flavonoid-rich blueberries and strawberries may reduce cognitive decline in elderly women, according to a study published online April 25 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Modulator of mGluR5 Improves Features of Autism in Mice

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- A selective negative allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5), GRN-529, improves some behavioral features of autism in mouse models of the disorder, according to an experimental study published in the April 25 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Accelerated Aging Evident in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The brains of individuals addicted to cocaine show accelerated loss of gray matter over and above the loss due to normal aging, according to a letter published online April 24 in Molecular Psychiatry.

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Subtype Best Predictor of Basal Cell Carcinoma Invasion Depth

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtype identified on biopsy and excision specimens is the best predictor of depth of invasion, according to a study published online April 16 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Age, Life Expectancy Influence Termination of PSA Screening

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Most primary care providers consider both a man's age and life expectancy in deciding whether to discontinue prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screenings, but multiple factors are involved in this decision, according to a study published online April 19 in Cancer.

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Erosive, but Not Nonerosive, GERD Ups Esophageal CA Risk

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease with a history of esophagitis are at increased risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, although the absolute risk is low, according to a study published in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Exposure to Violence Wears on Children's DNA

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Children who are exposed to violence have significantly more telomere erosion than their unexposed peers, according to a study published online April 24 in Molecular Psychiatry.

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Pathway Involved in Kidney Stone Formation Identified

TUESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- A gene previously linked to an increased risk of developing kidney stones is part of a calcium-sensitive pathway that regulates calcium absorption in the kidney, according to a study in the April 18 issue of The EMBO Journal.

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S. Aureus, Enterotoxins ID'd in Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and S. aureus-secreted enterotoxins (SE) are frequently found in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), particularly in those with corneal ulceration, according to a study published online April 10 in Allergy.

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Fibroblasts Reprogrammed Into Functioning Heart Cells in Mice

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Cells that normally form scar tissue after a heart attack can be reprogrammed into functional heart cells in mice, according to an experimental study published online April 18 in Nature.

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Novel Balanced Chromosome Abnormalities Found in Autism

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- New genetic variants associated with balanced alterations of chromosome structure have been identified in individuals with autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders, many of which are also present in individuals with schizophrenia, according to a study published online April 19 in Cell.

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New Fat Grafting Procedures Improve Breast Reconstruction

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Two autologous fat grafting procedures, enhanced stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) fat grafting, maintain breast volume and three-dimensional contour better than the standard fat grafting procedure, according to a study published online April 13 in Stem Cells Translational Medicine.

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CDC: HPV-Associated Cancers Strike More Than 30,000 Yearly

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Cancers associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV) are diagnosed in nearly 11 out of 100,000 men and women in the United States annually, and HPV vaccines play an important role in reducing the incidence of those cancers for which screening is not approved, according to a report published in the April 20 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Blood Test IDs Depressive Disorder in Adolescents

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- A blood test which measures transcriptomic markers may be useful for distinguishing early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents, according to a study published online April 17 in Translational Psychiatry.

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Basal Cell Carcinoma on Ear Significantly More Aggressive

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) on the ear is significantly more likely to be aggressive, and occurs more frequently in men, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Numerous Genetic Variants Linked to Bone Mineral Density

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Pooling the results of numerous studies, 56 genetic variants associated with bone mineral density have been identified, of which 14 are associated with fracture risk, according to a study published online April 15 in Nature Genetics.

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Genetic Variants Linked to Brain Size Identified

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic variants associated with brain size have been identified, including one variant which correlates with hippocampal volume, where size has been associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders, according to a study published online April 15 in Nature Genetics.

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3D Histological Reconstruction Method Developed

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- A novel method of three-dimensional (3D) histological reconstruction has been developed, according to a study published online April 11 in The American Journal of Pathology.

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2001 to 2006 Saw Increase in Mohs Surgery for Skin Cancer

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- For Medicare beneficiaries, the rate of use of Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) doubled from 2001 through 2006, according to research published in the April issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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IL-32 Expression Upregulated in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

MONDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Interleukin-32 (IL-32) mRNA expression is significantly higher in biopsies obtained from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), compared to levels found in biopsies obtained from individuals without the condition, according to a study published online April 9 in Allergy.

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Fronto-Parietal Network Plays Role in General Intelligence

MONDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified a role for the fronto-parietal network in the general factor of intelligence (g) and executive function, according to a study published in the April issue of Brain.

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Genes Identified for Ovarian Cancer Prognosis

FRIDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- Bimodal genes, or molecular on/off switches, can distinguish clinically relevant subtypes of ovarian cancer and provide ideal targets for diagnostic and prognostic testing, according to a study published online April 11 in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

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Copy Number Variants Tied to Increased Prostate Cancer Risk

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Copy number variants (CNVs) of two loci are linked to a significantly higher risk of prostate cancer, according to a study published online April 10 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Blocking Pathway Lowers Glucose in Mice With Diabetes

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Blocking a calcium-sensing pathway normally activated by glucagon lowers blood glucose levels without any negative side effects in mice with diabetes, according to a study published online April 12 in Cell Metabolism.

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Decreased Cancer Risk for Patients With PolyQ Diseases

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases have reduced incidence of cancer, according to a study published online April 12 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Prolonged Inadequate Sleep Linked to Obesity and Diabetes

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Prolonged inadequate sleep at irregular times lowers the resting metabolic rate and leads to defects in pancreatic insulin secretion, increasing the risk for obesity and diabetes, according to a study published in the April 11 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Mentholated Cigarettes Linked to Increased Stroke Risk

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Mentholated cigarettes are associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke, particularly among women and non-African-American smokers, according to a letter published in the April 9 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Gestational Age Affects Severity of Autism Symptoms

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Both preterm (<37 weeks) and post-term (>42 weeks) gestational age (GA) children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) display more severe symptoms compared with those born at a normal GA, according to research published online March 16 in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

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Stroke Risk Much Higher If Sibling Has Had a Stroke

WEDNESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Having a sibling who has had a stroke significantly increases the familial stroke risk by at least 60 percent, according to a study published online April 10 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.

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Smoking Found to Be a Risk Factor for Barrett's Esophagus

WEDNESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Cigarette smoking may be a modifiable risk factor for Barrett's esophagus, according to a study published in the April issue of Gastroenterology.

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Frequent, Older Dental X-Rays Linked to Brain Cancer

TUESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Frequent bitewing or panorex dental X-rays taken on previous generations of machines are linked to an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, according to a study published online April 10 in Cancer.

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HPV Vaccine Side Effects Not Serious in Young Women

TUESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Younger girls are more likely than adult women to report side effects after receiving the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4; Gardasil) vaccine, but the side effects are non-serious, according to a study published online Jan. 9 in the Journal of Women's Health.

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Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity, Sperm Motility Linked

TUESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Sperm with higher motility have increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity, according to a study published in the April issue of Urology.

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High U.S. Cancer Care Costs Seem to Be Worth It

MONDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with cancer in the United States, the value of additional survival gains have exceeded the additional costs of U.S. health spending compared with European counties, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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Somatic Mutations in Two Genes ID'd in Stomach Cancer

MONDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Somatic mutations have been identified in two genes, FAT4 and ARID1A, involved in cell adhesion and chromatin remodeling in some patients with stomach cancer, according to a study published online April 8 in Nature Genetics.

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Asymptomatic High-Risk Adults Often Have Pancreatic Lesions

MONDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Screening of asymptomatic high-risk individuals (HRIs) for pancreatic cancer often detects pancreatic lesions, many of which are proven or suspected neoplasms, according to a study published in the April issue of Gastroenterology.

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Maternal Metabolic Disease Tied to Autism

MONDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal metabolic conditions (MCs) increase the risk that a child will be born with a neurodevelopmental disorder, such as autism or developmental delay, according to a study published online April 9 in Pediatrics.

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Two Novel Genetic Variants Linked to Childhood Obesity

MONDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Two new genetic variants have been found to be associated with childhood obesity, according to a study published online April 8 in Nature Genetics.

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Immunotherapy Tied to Lower Alzheimer's CSF Biomarkers

FRIDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease, immunotherapy treatment with the anti-β-amyloid (Aβ) monoclonal antibody bapineuzumab results in lower concentrations of two cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers: total (T)-tau and phosphorylated (P)-tau, according to a study published online April 2 in the Archives of Neurology.

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Endodermal Progenitor Cells Generate Into Multiple Cell Types

FRIDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Endodermal progenitor (EP) cells derived from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into multiple cell types, including functional pancreatic β-cells, and are not tumorigenic, according to a study published in the April 6 issue of Cell Stem Cell.

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Increased Breast Cancer Risk With False-Positive Test

THURSDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Women with false-positive mammogram tests remain at significantly higher risk of breast cancer for six or more years, compared to women with negative tests, but the size of the excess risk has decreased since the early 2000s, according to a study published online April 5 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Asbestos Exposure Linked to Cardiovascular Death

THURSDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Occupational exposure to asbestos is associated with a higher risk of dying of cardiovascular disease, according to a study published online April 2 in Occupational & Environmental Medicine.

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Resistant Malaria Increasing on Thailand-Myanmar Border

THURSDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- From 2001 to 2010, an increase was seen in artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) on the Thailand-Myanmar border, which was largely attributable to parasite genetics, according to a longitudinal study published online April 5 in The Lancet.

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Studies Investigate Role of De Novo Mutations in Autism

THURSDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- The contribution of de novo mutations to the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is complex, according to three sequencing studies published online April 4 in Nature.

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Flavonoid Intake May Protect Men Against Parkinson's

THURSDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Total flavonoid intake is significantly associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in men, particularly the intake of anthocyanins and berries, according to a study published online April 4 in Neurology.

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Medical Malpractice Claims Incur Substantial Defense Costs

WEDNESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Defense costs for medical malpractice claims vary among specialties and are higher for claims that result in indemnity payments, according to a letter published in the April 5 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Importance of Diabetes Genetic Variants Unclear

WEDNESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes that affect glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are not associated with GLP-1 levels or GLP-1-induced insulin secretion in healthy individuals, according to a study published online March 28 in Diabetes.

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Antibiotic-Resistant S. aureus Found in Many Ambulances

WEDNESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are found in the majority of advanced life support (ALS) ambulances in the Chicago area, according to a study published in the April issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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Extensive Neuroanatomic Abnormalities Found in Epilepsy

WEDNESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Childhood-onset temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with neuroanatomic abnormalities, although age-related brain changes are largely comparable for those with epilepsy and for controls, according to a study published online April 3 in Epilepsia.

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Fluoroquinolone Use Linked to Retinal Detachment

TUESDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- The use of the oral fluoroquinolone antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of retinal detachment, although the absolute risk is small, according to a study published in the April 4 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Inflammatory Regulation Plays Role in Stress, Illness Link

TUESDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- People under chronic stress have glucocorticoid receptor resistance (GCR), which is linked to increased risk of illness, according to research published online April 2 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Study Estimates Overdiagnosis From Mammography Screening

TUESDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of a mammography screening program leads to a substantial amount of overdiagnosis, according to a study published in the April 3 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Serious Eye Disease Linked to Bisphosphonate Use

MONDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- First-time users of oral bisphosphonates have an increased risk of both uveitis and scleritis compared with nonusers, according to a study published online April 2 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Utility of Whole-Genome Sequencing Questioned

MONDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- Whole-genome sequencing is unlikely to provide much useful information on an individual's risk of developing common diseases, according to a study published online April 2 in Science Translational Medicine.

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Inhibition of Immune Pathway May Trigger Melanoma Growth

MONDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- Melanocyte expression of an immune inhibitory molecule, B7-H1, is associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), according to a study published in the March 28 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Melanoma Incidence Increasing Among Young Adults

MONDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- From 1970 to 2009, there was an increase in the incidence of melanoma among young adults, particularly females, according to a study published in the April issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Physician's Briefing
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