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April 2013 Briefing - Pathology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for April 2013. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Female Smokers More Susceptible to Colon Cancer

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Female smokers seem to be more susceptible to colon cancer than male smokers, particularly to proximal colon cancer, according to a study published online April 30 in Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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No Evidence of Lyme Disease in Children With Autism

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- A small study of 120 children appears to show that children with autism have no serological evidence of Lyme disease, according to a research letter published in the May 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on child health.

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USPSTF Recommends Universal HIV Screening From Age 15 to 65

MONDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening all 15- to 65-year olds, younger and older at-risk individuals, and all pregnant women for HIV, according to a Recommendation Statement published in the April 30 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Gene Variants Link to Insulin Resistance Based on Diet

FRIDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Variants of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) are associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, but only under particular dietary conditions, according to a study published online April 17 in Diabetes Care.

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Medical Interns Spending Less Time With Patients

FRIDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Medical interns are spending less time with patients and more time at a computer since new rules limiting total work hours were instituted in 2011, according to a study published online April 18 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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History of Skin Cancer Linked to Secondary Cancers

FRIDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Men and women with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at modestly greater risk of secondary cancers at other sites, according to a study published online April 23 in PLOS Medicine.

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Device Detects Blood Fungal Infections Rapidly

THURSDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- A small, portable device can detect Candida bloodstream infection, an often fatal fungal bloodstream infection, rapidly and accurately, according to a study published in the April 24 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Avian to Human Transmission of H7N9 Flu Virus Identified

THURSDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- The influenza A H7N9 virus has been transmitted from birds (specifically, chicken) and sickened humans, according to a study published online April 25 in The Lancet.

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Most With Confirmed H7N9 Avian Flu Are Critically Ill

THURSDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Most Chinese patients with confirmed avian influenza A (H7N9) are critically ill and 21 percent have died, according to a preliminary report published online April 24 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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One 12-Ounce Sweet Drink a Day Ups Risk of T2DM 22 Percent

THURSDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Consumption of sweetened soft drinks correlates with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in European adults, with one 12-ounce daily increase in sweetened soft drinks correlating with a 22 percent increase in risk of the disease, according to a study published online April 25 in Diabetologia.

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Air Pollution Linked to Marker of Atherosclerosis

THURSDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Greater exposure to air pollution is associated with greater progression of carotid artery thickness, a marker of atherosclerosis, according to a study published online April 23 in PLOS Medicine.

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Breast CA Tx Delays Still More Common for Poor, Uninsured

WEDNESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- For young women with breast cancer, a longer treatment delay time (TDT) is associated with decreased survival, especially for African-American women, those with public or no insurance, and those with low socioeconomic status; and women with early-stage breast cancer with Medicaid are more likely to undergo mastectomy than those with private insurance, according to two studies published online April 24 in JAMA Surgery.

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Intestinal Microbiota Tied to Proatherosclerotic Metabolite

WEDNESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Production of the proatherosclerotic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is dependent on intestinal microbiota metabolism, and increased TMAO levels correlate with the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, according to a study published in the April 25 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Diagnostic Errors Are the Leading Type of Malpractice Claim

WEDNESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- In the past 25 years, diagnostic errors have been the leading type of malpractice claim and account for the highest proportion of total payments, according to a study published online April 22 in BMJ Quality & Safety.

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Obesity Tied to Risk of Prostate Cancer After Negative Biopsy

WEDNESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- In men with an initial benign biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate, obesity at the time of the procedure is associated with the presence of precancerous lesions in the initial biopsy and a higher risk of developing prostate cancer, according to a study published online April 23 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Breast Density Linked to Breast Cancer-Specific Survival

TUESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- For women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment, a decrease in mammographic density appears to be associated with improved breast cancer-specific survival, according to a study published online April 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Study Describes Outcomes, Tx for HER2-Mutated Lung Cancers

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- For HER2-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), half of tumors are detected at stage IV, and anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) treatments are associated with encouraging response rates and disease control rates (DCRs), according to a study published online April 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Mammogram Rates Unchanged Since USPSTF Recommendations

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- There has been no change in mammography screening rates among women aged 40 years or older following publication of the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations, according to research published online April 19 in Cancer.

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HPV Exposure in Family, School Linked to Wart Development

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- For schoolchildren, exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV)-causing warts in the family and school class is associated with an increased risk of wart development, according to a study published online April 22 in Pediatrics.

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One-Year Survival Up for Critical Congenital Heart Defects

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- For infants with critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs), one-year survival has improved over time, with an increased risk of mortality associated with earlier diagnosis, low birth weight, and maternal age, according to a study published online April 22 in Pediatrics.

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Genetics Linked to Abnormal Alzheimer's Markers

FRIDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with a family history of late-onset Alzheimer's disease who are cognitively normal or mildly impaired have a higher prevalence of abnormal cerebral markers, according to a study published online April 17 in PLOS ONE.

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Racial Disparity in Head and Neck Cancer Outcomes

FRIDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Among Medicaid beneficiaries diagnosed with head and neck cancer, considerable racial disparities exist in treatment patterns and survival, according to a study published online April 18 in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

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Hair Analysis Can Show Elevated Cortisol Levels

FRIDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol, detectable in hair samples, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, according to a study published online April 17 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Patient-Centered Decision Making Ups Health Outcomes

FRIDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Patient-centered decision making (PCDM) is associated with improved health care outcomes, according to a study published in the April 16 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Pot Smoking Linked to Some Metabolic Changes

FRIDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Regularly smoking pot is associated with visceral adiposity and adipose tissue insulin resistance, but not other metabolic changes such as impaired β-cell function or hepatic steatosis, according to a study published online March 25 in Diabetes Care.

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Urine Cytology Adds Little to Hematuria Investigation

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Urine cytology adds little to the diagnostic value of standard hematuria investigations, according to a study published in the April issue of The Journal of Urology.

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NH-proBNP Strongly Predicts Cardiac Mortality in T2DM

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- NH2-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts the risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes without previous CV disease (CVD), according to a study published online April 5 in Diabetes Care.

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Accuracy of Smartphone Apps for Melanoma Risk Is Variable

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- The diagnostic accuracy of smartphone applications that analyze photos of pigmented skin lesions for melanoma risk is highly variable and incorrectly classifies about a third of melanomas as benign, according to a study published in the April issue of JAMA Dermatology.

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Relative Proportion of MRSA Increasing in S. aureus Isolates

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- The relative proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing in S. aureus isolates, and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics, according to a study published in the April issue of JAMA Dermatology.

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Vascular Markers Linked to Cognitive Decline in Diabetes

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Stroke and subclinical markers of macrovascular disease are associated with cognitive decline in older adults with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online April 11 in Diabetes Care.

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Essay Questions Conventional Etiology of Obesity

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- To progress in the fight against obesity it is necessary to accept that there may be alternative hypotheses underlying its etiology and be prepared to invest the necessary time and resources to understand the underlying causes, according to an essay published online April 16 in BMJ.

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Family-Centered Teaching Rounds Good for Patients, Students

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Teaching and conducting rounds in the presence of patients and their families can be beneficial for patients and learners, according to research published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Guidelines Issued Relating to Online Medical Professionalism

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians should be aware of the benefits on online media and should recognize the implications for patient confidentiality and public perception, according to a position paper published in the April 16 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Community Benefit Spending Varies for Tax-Exempt Hospitals

WEDNESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable variation in the level of community benefit expenditure by tax-exempt hospitals, according to a study published in the April 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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PSA in Midlife Can Predict Later Risk of Prostate Cancer Mets

WEDNESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in midlife can be used to predict the long-term risk of prostate cancer metastasis or death from prostate cancer, according to a study published online April 16 in BMJ.

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Presenting Fee Data to Docs Cuts Number of Tests Ordered

WEDNESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Presenting fee data to providers at the time of laboratory test orders is associated with a small reduction in the number of tests ordered, according to a study published online April 15 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Aerobic Exercise Reduces Brain Damage From Alcohol

WEDNESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with greater white matter damage in people who do not regularly do aerobic exercise, according to a study published online April 2 in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.

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Shock Waves Improve Coronary Stem Cell Treatment

TUESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with chronic heart failure, cardiac shock wave pretreatment before intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMCs) significantly but modestly improves heart function, according to a study published in the April 17 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Some Triggered Fainting May Be Inherited

TUESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Some inherited cases of vasovagal syncope, or fainting caused by particular triggers, are linked to a particular region of chromosome 15q26, according to a study in the April 16 issue of Neurology.

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Computer-Aided Detection Tied to Increase in DCIS Diagnoses

TUESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- The use of computer-aided detection (CAD) for screening mammography has increased in prevalence and is associated with increased diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), according to a study published in the April 16 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Endometriosis Surgery Linked to Lower Ovarian Cancer Risk

TUESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Women who undergo surgical treatment for endometriosis have a significantly lower risk of developing ovarian cancer, according to a study published online April 8 in Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica.

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Longer Breastfeeding Duration Boosts Risk of Iron Deficiency

TUESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Longer breastfeeding duration is associated with increased odds of iron deficiency in healthy children, according to a study published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Pediatric Melanomas Are Increasing 2 Percent a Year

MONDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of pediatric melanoma has increased by about 2 percent per year, and this incidence trend is influenced by gender, age, and stage at diagnosis, primary site, and ultraviolet (UV)-B exposure, according to research published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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In-Transit Melanoma Advance Is Difficult to Predict

MONDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Progressive disease cannot be reliably predicted by patient, clinical, or procedural factors in patients receiving regional therapy for advanced melanoma of the extremities, according to a study published online April 3 in JAMA Surgery.

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Speech Details Practices to Improve U.S. Health Systems

THURSDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- There are specific steps health care providers and policymakers should take to create high-quality, patient-centered care at lower costs, according to remarks made in an April 9 speech to the National Press Club.

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ACS: Room for Improvement in Cancer Prevention, Detection

THURSDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Despite improvements in aspects of cancer prevention and early detection, more systematic efforts to reduce tobacco use and obesity, and expand the use of screening tests could prevent much of the suffering and death of cancer, according to a report published online April 11 by the American Cancer Society.

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Ohio Girl's Death Shows Need for Catch-Up Vaccinations

THURSDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- A case of varicella death of an unvaccinated, previously healthy adolescent in Ohio was reported in the April 12 Morbidity and Mortality and Weekly Report.

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Polymorphism in Estrogen Receptor α Linked to Back Pain

WEDNESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- For women with degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor α (ERα) are associated with back pain intensity, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques.

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LQTS Susceptibility Mutations ID'd in Intrauterine Death

WEDNESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Missense mutations associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS) susceptibility may explain some cases of intrauterine fetal death, according to a study published April 10 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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BRAF V600E Mutation Ups Papillary Thyroid Cancer Death

TUESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation is associated with increased cancer-related mortality, according to a study published April 10 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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SNP Spots Late Alzheimer's Risk in African-Americans

TUESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- A novel variant in the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA7) has been identified, which is associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in African-Americans, according to a study published April 10 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Metagenomics Tags Pathogens During Disease Outbreak

TUESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- A three-phase metagenomic analysis, involving the direct sequencing of DNA extracted from microbiologically complex samples, can identify the bacterial pathogens involved in disease outbreaks, according to a study published April 10 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Amiodarone Treatment Is Linked to Higher Cancer Risk

MONDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Amiodarone treatment for arrhythmias is associated with a higher risk of developing cancer, particularly in males and with increasing dose, according to a study published online April 8 in Cancer.

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Delayed Allergy Reactions Seen With Pediatric Meat Consumption

MONDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody specific for galactose-α1,3-galactose (α-Gal), which is associated with delayed anaphylaxis and urticaria that occurs several hours after eating beef, pork, or lamb, has been identified in children reporting idiopathic anaphylaxis or urticaria, according to a study published online April 8 in Pediatrics.

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Coal-Tar-Sealed Pavement-Tied PAH Exposure Ups Cancer Risk

FRIDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- There is a significantly increased lifetime risk of cancer for individuals exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement, according to a study published in the Jan. 15 issue of Environmental Science & Technology.

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Diabetes-Linked Autoantibodies May Alter Children's Gut Microbes

FRIDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Children with diabetes-associated autoantibodies have alterations in the gut microbiome, according to a study published in the April issue of Diabetes.

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Disparities in Blood Lead Levels Persist Among U.S. Children

FRIDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Despite progress in reducing blood lead levels (BLLs) among children aged 1 to 5 years, disparities in those levels persist among different racial/ethnic and income groups, according to research published April 5 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Testosterone Changes Precede Type of Rheumatoid Arthritis

THURSDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Hormonal changes, especially testosterone, precede the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in men and may influence the type of RA, according to research published online April 3 in Annals of Rheumatic Diseases.

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Belgium Study Tracks Trends in End-of-Life Decision Making

WEDNESDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- In Belgium, between 1998 and 2007, euthanasia was legalized and palliative care was intensified, which led to an increase in end-of-life decisions (ELDs) and fewer life-ending acts without the patient's explicit request, according to research published online March 11 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Rate of Nephrectomy at Lymph Node Dissection Is Declining

WEDNESDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- Over the last 30 years, the incidence of nephrectomy at post-chemotherapy (PC) retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) has steadily declined, according to research published in the March issue of The Journal of Urology.

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USPSTF: BRCA Testing for Women With Family History

TUESDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing be limited to women whose family histories are associated with an increased likelihood of having BRCA mutations.

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Study Tracks Patterns of U.S. Cases of Anal Canal Carcinoma

TUESDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- Available screening and identification of human papillomavirus likely contributed to the increased incidences of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) and anal carcinoma in situ (CIS) after 1997, according to research published online March 18 in Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Incidence of Valley Fever Is Increasing in Endemic Areas

MONDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of coccidioidomycosis, or valley fever, which is endemic to the southwestern United States, has dramatically increased since the late 1990s, particularly among the elderly, according to a study in the March 29 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Most Partners of U.S. Docs Satisfied in Their Relationships

MONDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- Most spouses/partners of U.S. physicians report being satisfied with their relationships, with satisfaction linked to time spent together each day, according to research published in the March issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Physician's Briefing