February 2015 Briefing - Pathology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for February 2015. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

AMA: Key Steps for Minimizing Liability Risk in Telemedicine

FRIDAY, Feb. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Key steps should be taken to minimize the potential risk of liability resulting from use of telemedicine, according to an article published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Distinct Immune Changes Seen in Patients With Chronic Fatigue Sx

FRIDAY, Feb. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) appears to be linked to specific changes in a person's immune system, particularly increased amounts of chemical messengers that regulate immune responses, researchers report. The new study was published online Feb. 27 in Science Advances.

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Genetic Mutations Found in Leukemia Rise With Age

FRIDAY, Feb. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For many people, an increase in genetic mutations that could trigger leukemia seems to be an inevitable part of aging, according to a new study published online Feb. 26 in Cell Reports.

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Dr. Craig Spencer Speaks Out About His Ebola Experience

FRIDAY, Feb. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many U.S. politicians and media outlets hyped the threat of U.S. cases of Ebola last year, according to a newly written personal account by Craig Spencer, M.D., M.P.H., the last American Ebola patient treated in the United States. He also believes that officials and the media unnecessarily maligned those who were risking their lives to combat the West African epidemic.

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Use of Injected Opioid Tied to HIV Outbreak in Indiana

THURSDAY, Feb. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Addicts' use of a powerful painkiller is driving a large HIV outbreak in Indiana, according to health officials.

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Incidence of Viral Pneumonia Up in Young Children

THURSDAY, Feb. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Young children are at increased risk of becoming seriously ill with pneumonia -- but unlike in years past, the cause is usually a respiratory virus, according to a study published in the Feb. 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Experimental Research Targets Emulsifiers in Food

THURSDAY, Feb. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Emulsifiers used to improve food texture and to extend shelf life might increase the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and metabolic syndrome, according to experimental research. The study was published online Feb. 25 in Nature.

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Location of Colorectal Cancer Factors Into Survival

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that started on the left side may be more likely to survive than those whose disease originated on the right side, according to research published in the March issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Characteristics of Tuberculosis Source Cases Identified

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- In 26 U.S. tuberculosis outbreaks the initial source case-patients had long incubation periods and were characterized by substance abuse, incarceration, and homelessness, according to a study published in the March issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Disease.

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Remote Patient Monitoring Sector Increasing Rapidly

TUESDAY, Feb. 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The remote patient monitoring sector is growing rapidly and could have a considerable impact on health care, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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SNP Linked to Vincristine-Related Neuropathy in ALL

TUESDAY, Feb. 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of the CEP72 gene, which encodes a centrosomal protein involved in microtubule formation, correlates with risk and severity of vincristine-related peripheral neuropathy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), according to a study published in the Feb. 24 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Water Used to Mix Baby Formula Plays Role in Arsenic Level

TUESDAY, Feb. 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The water used to mix baby formula plays the biggest role in whether formula-fed babies are exposed to increased levels of arsenic, according to a new study. The findings were reported online Feb. 23 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Nasal Allergies Tied to Increased Nasopharyngeal Cancer Risk

TUESDAY, Feb. 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with allergic rhinitis may have an increased risk of developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), according to a Taiwanese study published in the March issue of Head & Neck.

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Low Vitamin D May Be More Closely Tied to DM Than Obesity

MONDAY, Feb. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with low levels of vitamin D appear to have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, even if they aren't overweight or obese, a new study suggests. The findings were published online Feb. 23 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Undiagnosed/Untreated HIV Implicated in Most New Cases

MONDAY, Feb. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Undiagnosed and untreated people with HIV may be responsible for more than nine out of 10 new infections, according to research published online Feb. 23 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Chikungunya Virus Infection Can Mimic Rheumatoid Arthritis

MONDAY, Feb. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus causes joint pain and swelling similar to rheumatoid arthritis, which can make diagnosis difficult, according to research published online Jan. 20 in Arthritis & Rheumatology.

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CDC Investigating Newly Discovered Tick-Borne Virus

MONDAY, Feb. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An otherwise healthy man in Kansas became infected with a newly discovered type of virus after he was bitten by ticks, and he died of a related illness 11 days later, health official reported Friday. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention team noted that the newly identified virus is a novel member of the genus Thogotovirus, which has been linked to transmission by ticks and mosquitoes in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa.

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Patients Say Cost Matters Greatly in Choosing Doctor

FRIDAY, Feb. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The number one determining factor for selecting a doctor is whether the physician is in-network, according to a report published by Vitals.

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Americans Living Longer Post-Cancer, but Disparities Remain

FRIDAY, Feb. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Survival rates are improving for many people with cancers of the breast, prostate, lung, liver, and colon or rectum, especially for those diagnosed at younger ages, according to research published online Feb. 19 in JAMA Oncology.

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Radiation Therapy Most Common Treatment for Prostate Cancer

FRIDAY, Feb. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that a wait-and-watch approach for prostate cancer isn't being used often enough, and that more men are being treated than may be necessary. The study appears online Feb. 19 in JAMA Oncology.

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Fast-Replicating HIV Strains Damage Immune System Earlier

FRIDAY, Feb. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Fast-replicating strains of HIV damage the immune system in the very early stages of infection, resulting in quicker disease progression, according to a study published online Feb. 17 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Sun Damage to Skin Can Continue After Dark

FRIDAY, Feb. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Skin damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation continues long after sun exposure, even in the dark, according to a study published in the Feb. 20 issue of Science.

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Lack of Sleep Tied to Increased Levels of Free Fatty Acids

THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New research helps explain why getting too little sleep might boost diabetes risk. The study was published online Feb. 19 in Diabetologia.

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Phthalates in First Trimester May Affect Male Fertility

THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- When expectant mothers are exposed to phthalates during the first trimester, their male offspring may have a greater risk of infertility later in life, a new study suggests. The report was published online Feb. 18 in Human Reproduction.

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Duodenoscopes Infected With CRE at UCLA Med Center

THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Endoscopes that were used to perform digestive procedures between October and January were contaminated with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, California hospital officials said Thursday.

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Varicella Zoster Linked to Giant Cell Arteritis

THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New research links the varicella zoster virus to giant cell arteritis. The study was published online Feb. 18 in Neurology.

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'Remission' Replaces 'Functional Cure' in HIV Case

THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- All babies born with HIV should receive the same rapid medical response as the young Mississippi girl born with the virus who suffered a disappointing relapse last July, despite the fact that the virus later reappeared, according to a letter published in the Feb. 19 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Fear of Discrimination Keeps Many LGBT Med Students Silent

THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Fear of discrimination is a major reason why about one-third of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) medical students stay "in the closet," new research finds. The study was published online Feb. 16 in Academic Medicine.

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Doctors, Pharmacists Least Likely Health Pros to Divorce

THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors appear less likely to get divorced than most other health care professionals, according to research published online Feb. 18 in The BMJ.

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Research Finds No Cancer Link With Pimecrolimus

THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Pimecrolimus (Elidel) cream used to treat eczema in children does not appear to increase the risk of cancer, according to a study published online Feb. 18 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Article Emphasizes Importance of Apology in Medical Error

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Apology laws, which prohibit certain statements or expressions of sympathy by a physician from being admissible in a lawsuit, are unnecessary if physicians understand the importance of saying sorry and offering accountability after an error, according to an article published Feb. 4 in Medical Economics.

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CDC: Biggest Rise in Recent Measles Cases in Illinois

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The number of measles cases in the United States has reached 141 patients in 17 states and the District of Columbia, federal health officials reported Tuesday.

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'Most Comprehensive Map' of Human Epigenomes Presented

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have issued a comprehensive map of human epigenomes -- the range of chemical and structural shifts that determine how genes govern health. The group published the new map online Feb. 18 in Nature, accompanied by simultaneous publication in six other sister journals.

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Seasonal Flu Vaccine Can Offer Cross-Protection Against H7N9

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Seasonal influenza vaccines trigger immune system protection against the H7N9 influenza virus, according to a study published online Feb. 17 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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Eliglustat Safely Reverses Manifestations of Gaucher's

TUESDAY, Feb. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A novel oral substrate reduction therapy, eliglustat, can safely reverse clinical manifestations in untreated adults with Gaucher's disease type 1, according to a study published in the Feb. 17 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Young Adult Sore Throat Could Be Due to F. Necrophorum

TUESDAY, Feb. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Fusobacterium necrophorum is responsible for one in five sore throats in young adults, a new study suggests. The report was published in the Feb. 17 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Observation Increasingly Used in Younger Men With Prostate CA

TUESDAY, Feb. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Observation is increasingly being used among men with low-risk prostate cancer who are young and healthy enough for treatment, according to a study published in the March issue of The Journal of Urology.

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D-Dimer Levels Up in C1-INH Deficient Hereditary Angioedema

TUESDAY, Feb. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Elevated levels of plasma D-dimer are associated with attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (C1-INH-HAE), according to a study published online Jan. 30 in Allergy.

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Wide Variation in Hospital Tx Patterns for Metastatic CRC

TUESDAY, Feb. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), there is wide variation in hospital treatment patterns, according to a study published online Jan. 29 in Cancer.

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Medical Journals Should Not Be Swayed by Fear of Libel Lawsuits

MONDAY, Feb. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Fear of corporate defamation lawsuits should not prevent medical journals from investigating corporate products, according to a perspective piece published online Feb. 16 in Pediatrics.

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Many Adults Maintain Adequate Vitamin D With Minimal UVR

MONDAY, Feb. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many adults maintain adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels even in periods of minimal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, according to a study published online Feb. 3 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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Patients Tend to Prefer Formal Physician Attire

FRIDAY, Feb. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Patients often prefer physicians with formal attire and white coats, according to a systematic review published online Jan. 19 in BMJ Open.

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ASCO Endorses ACS Guideline for Prostate CA Survivor Care

FRIDAY, Feb. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has endorsed the American Cancer Society (ACS) Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines, according to a report published online Feb. 9 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Osteoporosis-Treated Adults Have Elevated Risk of Mortality

FRIDAY, Feb. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Women and men below age 70 who are treated for osteoporosis have an excess mortality risk, according to a study published online Feb. 7 in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

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Latino Physician Shortage Has Worsened Since 1980

FRIDAY, Feb. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- From 1980 to 2010 the Latino physician shortage worsened, according to a study published online Jan. 27 in Academic Medicine.

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Targeted Panel Testing Superior for Neuromuscular Diseases

FRIDAY, Feb. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Targeted panel testing has the highest clinical yield for molecular diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases (NMDs), according to a study published in the February issue of the Annals of Neurology.

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Deaths Due to Smoking Underestimated in U.S.

THURSDAY, Feb. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- According to the U.S. Surgeon General, about 480,000 Americans die of smoking-related causes each year, but that figure may be closer to 540,000, researchers from the American Cancer Society report. The findings were published in the Feb. 12 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Low Childhood Vitamin D Levels May Up Adult CVD Risk

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Adults who had low vitamin D levels as children and teens may be more likely to have atherosclerosis, according to a study published online Feb. 10 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Hepatitis B Screening Endorsed Pre-Immunosuppressive Tx

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- All patients undergoing chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapies should undergo routine screening for active or prior hepatitis B viral infection, according to research published in the February issue of Hepatology.

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Mercury From Seafood Tied to Higher Levels of Autoantibodies

TUESDAY, Feb. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The mercury found in some seafood may be linked to autoimmune disorders among women of childbearing age, according to a study published online Feb. 10 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Research Misconduct ID'd by FDA Often Unreported in Literature

TUESDAY, Feb. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration inspection reports between 1998 and 2013 revealed 57 clinical trials in which regulators had uncovered violations serious enough to earn the agency's most severe classification -- "official action indicated," or OAI. The findings were published online Feb. 9 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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HPV16 Seropositivity Relatively Common Before Anal Cancer

TUESDAY, Feb. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) seropositivity is relatively common before anal cancer diagnosis, according to a study published online Feb. 9 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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One-Quarter of Adnexal Masses in Youth Are Malignant

MONDAY, Feb. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For children and adolescents with an adnexal mass, about 25 percent of masses are malignant, according to a study published online Feb. 4 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Soy Food, Isoflavone Intake Not Linked to Endometrial Cancer

FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Soy food/isoflavone intake is not associated with endometrial cancer risk in Japanese women, according to a study published in the February issue of BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology.

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APOE Allele Linked to Severity of Alzheimer's Disease

FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The APOEε2 allele may be associated with a milder clinical and pathological course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to research published online Jan. 26 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Mortality Risk of T1DM Higher for Women

FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Women with type 1 diabetes have a nearly 40 percent greater risk of dying from any cause and more than double the risk of dying from heart disease than men with type 1 diabetes, according to a report published online Feb. 5 in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.

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U.S. Lyme Disease Costs Could Exceed $1 Billion Annually

FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- With an estimated 240,000 to 440,000 new cases of Lyme disease diagnosed every year, the illness costs the U.S. health care system between $712 million and $1.3 billion annually, according to a study published online Feb. 4 in PLOS ONE.

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Measles Diagnosis for Five Infants at Illinois Day Care

FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The number of measles cases in the United States continues to climb, with Illinois health officials saying five infants who attend a suburban Chicago day care center are infected.

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High Coffee Intake Linked With Lower Risk of Endometrial Cancer

FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- High versus low intake of coffee is associated with a reduced risk for endometrial cancer, according to a new study published in the February issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Linked With Earlier Surgical Menopause

THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Menstrual abnormalities, endometriosis, pelvic pain, hysterectomy, and early/surgical menopause are all associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), according to research published online Feb. 2 in Menopause.

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Two Novel Genetic Variants for Breast Cancer Discovered

THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists say they have identified two new genetic variants that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Their findings are published online Feb. 4 in Human Molecular Genetics.

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Perspective on Dr. Davidson: 'Be Like Mike'

THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The tragic shooting of surgeon Michael Davidson can be used as an opportunity to find meaning in tragedy, according to a perspective piece published online Feb. 5 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Smartphone Accessory Could Help Detect HIV, Syphilis

THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A smartphone accessory that can detect HIV and syphilis has been developed by Columbia University researchers. The findings were published in the Feb. 4 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Lung Cancer Now Leads Cancer Mortality in Developed Nations

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Lung cancer has overtaken breast cancer as the leading cancer killer of women in developed countries, reflecting changing smoking patterns among females worldwide, according to a new report published online Feb. 4 in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

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Biomarkers Show Potential for Parkinson's Diagnosis

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have developed a blood test that they say could help neurologists detect Parkinson's disease and track the illness as it progresses. The study was published online Feb. 2 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Secondhand Smoke Exposure Down But Still Too High

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Although fewer Americans are smoking and more communities have smoke-free laws, 58 million nonsmokers are still being exposed to secondhand smoke, U.S. health officials said Tuesday. Findings from the new study were published in the Feb. 3 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Healthy Diet Independently Tied to Lower Risk of COPD

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A healthy diet might reduce the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), new research suggests. The study was published Feb. 3 in The BMJ.

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AICR: Awareness of Key Cancer Risk Factors Alarmingly Low

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Fewer than half of Americans are aware that some major lifestyle factors can affect their cancer risk, and many people worry about cancer-causing claims that aren't backed by scientific evidence, according to a survey conducted by the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). The survey results were released Wednesday to coincide with World Cancer Day.

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Patient Engagement Can Cut Costs, Improve Outcomes

MONDAY, Feb. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Patient engagement initiatives can decrease costs without sacrificing quality care, according to an article published Jan. 22 in Medical Economics.

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Estrogen May Lessen Cognitive Effects of Lead Exposure

MONDAY, Feb. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Estrogen and estradiol may help protect against lead's harmful effects on the frontal areas of the brain, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Environmental Health.

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