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July 2010 Briefing - Pathology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for July 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Albuminuria, eGFR Independently Predict Acute Kidney Injury

FRIDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Protein in the urine (even at low levels) and decreased kidney function are independent warning signs of acute kidney injury (AKI), according to a study published online July 29 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Fecal Occult Blood Testing May Be Most Efficient Choice

FRIDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Although colonoscopy is a more accurate colorectal cancer screening method, fecal occult blood testing is likely to result in more individuals getting screened and more life-years gained, suggesting it may be the best approach for programs with limited budgets, according to a study published online July 29 in Health Affairs.

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Specialties See Modest Compensation Increases in '09

FRIDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Most medical specialties saw modest compensation increases in 2009, but many provider organizations are still operating at a substantial loss, according to the findings of the American Medical Group Association's (AMGA) 2010 Medical Group Compensation and Financial Survey.

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Biosensor Detects Imatinib Resistance in Leukemia

THURSDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- A new diagnostic method that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) can detect small populations of drug-resistant cancer cells in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with imatinib, according to research published in the August 1 issue of Clinical Cancer Research.

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Validated Obesity Variants Have Limited Clinical Utility

THURSDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- The discriminative value of 20 validated common genetic variants associated with obesity is too weak for clinical practice use; however, when added to conventional nongenetic risk factors, they increase the discrimination ability, according to a study published in the July issue of Diabetes.

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Differences in Brain Structure Seen in Females With IBS

THURSDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Females with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have structural gray matter brain alterations in areas involved in evaluative and cognitive functions, according to research published in the July issue of Gastroenterology.

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Leptin Deficiency Associated With Insulin Resistance

THURSDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Leptin deficiency appears to lead to insulin resistance in uncontrolled, insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus (uDM), according to an animal study published in the July issue of Diabetes.

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Sleep Problem May Precede Brain Disorders by Decades

WEDNESDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and dementia with Lewy bodies may have preclinical periods lasting for decades in some cases, with the initial manifestation being idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), according to research published online July 28 in Neurology.

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Mammogram Failure in 40s Mostly Due to Detection Limits

WEDNESDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Poorer mammographic screening outcomes in women in their 40s compared with older women are mostly due to the reduced ability of mammograms to detect cancer in that age group, as opposed to a faster tumor doubling time, according to research published online July 27 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Genetics-Based Risk Score Tied to Risk for Breast Cancer

TUESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Higher risk scores for breast cancer based on genetic variants linked to breast cancer are associated with a higher risk for cancer and are especially predictive of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease, according to research published in the July 28 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Younger Children Have Longer H1N1 Viral Shedding Period

TUESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Children under 13 years of age shed the 2009 H1N1 virus longer than other age groups, posing a higher risk for spreading the virus; yet, closing schools during a flu pandemic has limited effectiveness for isolating children, according to two studies published in the August issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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EEG Protocol Results Found Similar in Epilepsy Diagnosis

MONDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- For diagnosing epilepsy in children with new-onset seizures, early electroencephalography (EEG) or later sleep-deprived EEG (SD-EEG) provide similar results and diagnostic utility, according to a study published online July 12 in the Archives of Neurology.

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MODS Culture Method Beneficial in TB Diagnosis

MONDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) culture method, using duplicate gastric-aspirate specimens, may be the best diagnostic test for pulmonary tuberculosis in high-risk children in a resource-poor setting, according to research published online July 26 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Back Pain Diagnostic Blocks Delay Pain Relief, Add Cost

MONDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Performing one or more temporary diagnostic nerve blocks to establish arthritis as the cause of back pain before treatment with radiofrequency denervation results in unnecessary tests, delayed pain relief, and added cost, according to a study in the August issue of Anesthesiology.

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Multiple Genetic Variants Add to Prostate Cancer Risk

FRIDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Nine genetic variants located in different regions have a cumulative association with risk of developing prostate cancer, according to a study in the August issue of The Journal of Urology.

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Folate-Related Genes Plus Lifestyle Tied to Heart Defects

THURSDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Women who have functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in folate-related genes as well as lifestyle factors that may alter folate metabolism appear to be at increased risk of having a fetus with a congenital heart defect (CHD), according to a study published in the August issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Study Identifies Major Peptide Culprits in Celiac Disease

THURSDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- The overactive immune response to gluten that characterizes celiac disease results mostly from a limited number of peptides activating pathogenic T cells, suggesting that the disease might be prevented by developing nontoxic gluten products or be treated with immunotherapy, according to a study in the July 21 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Novel Technique Can Detect Abnormal Cells in Lung Cancer

THURSDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- A new technique can identify circulating genetically abnormal cells (CACs) in the bloodstreams of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to a study published online July 22 in Clinical Cancer Research.

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Pluripotent Stem Cells Model Cardiac Disease Mechanisms

THURSDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have successfully generated pluripotent stem cells capable of recapitulating certain aspects of long-QT syndrome type 1, according to an article published online July 21 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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ACOG: Cervical Cytology Not Recommended for Adolescents

THURSDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Although prior recommendations of major societies advised cervical cytology screening in adolescents based on onset of vaginal intercourse, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends that screening begin at age 21, regardless of sexual activity, due to the rarity of cervical cancer in women under 21. These recommendations have been published in the August issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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When LDL After Statin is Very Low, HDL Not a Risk Factor

THURSDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in patients untreated by statins, but in treated patients who achieve very low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, HDL level is no longer associated with level of risk, according to research published online July 22 in The Lancet.

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HPV Vaccine Demonstrates Sustained Protection

WEDNESDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to provide strong and sustained protection against low-grade lesions attributable to HPV, according to research published July 20 in BMJ.

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Gene Therapy Shows Benefit in Children With X-Linked SCID

WEDNESDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- In patients lacking an HLA-identical donor for stem-cell transplantation, gene therapy may be effective in treating X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), though the treatment carries a risk of acute leukemia, according to research published in the July 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Study Examines Activity in Goodpasture's Disease

WEDNESDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- New findings suggest that Goodpasture's disease -- which is marked by progressive glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage -- may involve a so-called autoimmune "conformeropathy," according to research published in the July 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Automated Audio Method Can Help ID Children With Autism

WEDNESDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- A method of conducting day-long audio recordings, and processing them with automated analysis, can predict children's ages and identify those with language delay or autism, according to research published online July 19 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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PCB Exposure May Raise Risk for Hypertension

WEDNESDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) appears to be associated with rates of hypertension, and may have an effect on blood pressure control, according to research published online July 16 in the Journal of Hypertension.

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Melanoma Excision Depth Varies by Physician Specialty

WEDNESDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Melanoma specialists who are not dermatologists tend to excise thin invasive melanomas to a deeper level than do dermatologist specialists and non-specialists, according to research published online July 19 in the Archives of Dermatology.

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CHD Risk Factors Common in Young Men and Women

TUESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are common among young adults, but they don't seem to alter rates of screening for high cholesterol, according to research published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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5.2 Percent of Residency Applicant Essays Plagiarized

TUESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- About 5 percent of the application essays to residency programs -- often referred to as the personal statement -- contain plagiarized material, according to research published in the July 20 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Painters Found to Have Increased Bladder Cancer Risk

TUESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Occupational exposures in painters are associated with an elevated risk for bladder cancer, a risk that increases with years on the job, according to research published in the August issue of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

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CRC Screening Disparities Persist for Seniors on Medicare

TUESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Despite expanding coverage for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the Medicare population, disparities persist based on differences in usual place of health care, education level, and insurance coverage type, according to research published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Post-Traumatic Epilepsy Can Occur Years After Brain Injury

MONDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Some soldiers who suffered penetrating head injuries (PHIs) in the Vietnam War developed post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) more than 14 years after receiving their injuries, and the location, size, and type of lesion all predict PTE, according to the latest phase of the decades-long Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS) reported in the July 20 issue of Neurology.

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Dense Breasts + Hormones Up Cancer Risk After Menopause

MONDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Postmenopausal women with high breast density, especially those undergoing hormone therapy with estrogen plus progestin, are at higher risk for developing breast cancer, according to a study published online July 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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BMI at Age 18 Found to Predict Psoriatic Arthritis Risk

MONDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Psoriasis patients with a higher body mass index (BMI) at age 18 have an increased risk of developing psoriatic arthritis (PsA) than those with a lower BMI at that age, according to research published in the July issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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In Vitro Fertilization Linked to Children's Cancer Risk

MONDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) may have a moderately increased risk of cancer, according to research published online July 19 in Pediatrics.

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Six-Gene Signature May Predict Pancreatic Cancer Prognosis

MONDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- A six-gene signature associated with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can independently predict survival, according to a study published online July 13 in PLoS Medicine.

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Morning Urine Test Best Predicts Renal Events

MONDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- To detect declining kidney performance in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy, a morning urine test to determine the albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) is superior to other urine collection and test protocols, according to a study published online July 15 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Fecal Calprotectin Test IDs Patients Likely to Have IBD

FRIDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Measuring fecal calprotectin levels is an effective screening approach for identifying patients with the highest likelihood of requiring endoscopy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), though the specificity of the test is significantly better in adults than in children, according to research published July 15 in BMJ.

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Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, eGFR Aid in Risk Stratification

FRIDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with and without diabetes, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are valuable for risk stratification, and underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetes patients is linked to an increased risk of cardiac death, according to research published in the July issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Imaging.

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'Ghosts' After Heart Device Removal Linked to Infection

FRIDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- The presence of "ghosts" -- or intracardiac masses noted on echocardiography after device removal -- suggests device infection and may be associated with cardiac device-related infective endocarditis (CDRIE); these ghosts are present in 8 percent of patients after percutaneous device removal, according to research published in the July issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Imaging.

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BMI Linked to Poorer Cognitive Function in Older Women

THURSDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Among postmenopausal women, higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with poorer cognitive function in those with a smaller waist-to-hip ratio, according to research published online July 14 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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BMIPP Data Improve Acute Coronary Syndrome Diagnosis

THURSDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Use of β-methyl-p-[123I]-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) data in addition to initially available information can help with the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), according to research published in the July 20 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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High Vitamin D Levels Tied to Lower Parkinson's Risk

WEDNESDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- People with higher serum levels of vitamin D are at reduced risk for developing Parkinson's disease compared to those with lower serum levels of the vitamin, according to a study in the July issue of the Archives of Neurology.

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Nomogram Helps Predict Best Treatment for DCIS

TUESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- A nomogram using clinical and pathological tumor characteristics can predict the risk for local recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and can assist in making individualized treatment decisions, according to research published online July 12 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Vitamins E, D Linked to Cognitive Benefits in Later Life

TUESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Higher intake of vitamin E appears to lower risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease, while older individuals with low vitamin D levels appear more likely to experience cognitive decline, according to two studies published in the July Archives of Neurology and the July 12 Archives of Internal Medicine, respectively.

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Breast Density Not a Risk Factor for BRCA Carriers

MONDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Although breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer in the general population, it does not appear to increase risk in women with BRCA mutations, according to research published online July 12 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Larger Head Size Tied to Less Decline in Alzheimer's Patients

MONDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Greater head circumference appears to be protective against cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease, according to research published in the July 13 issue of Neurology.

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Comorbidities Add to Colorectal Cancer Racial Disparities

MONDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Among patients with colorectal cancer, comorbidities and socioeconomic status appear to be relatively important explanations for the poorer survival seen in blacks compared to Asians and whites, according to research published online July 12 in Cancer.

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Family History-Based Lipid Screening Misses Some Children

MONDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Use of family history to determine which children need cholesterol screening -- instead of using universal cholesterol screening -- is likely to miss some children who have dyslipidemia, and fail to detect many who may have genetic dyslipidemias requiring pharmacologic treatment, according to a study published online July 12 in Pediatrics.

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Findings May Hold Value for Future HIV-1 Vaccine Design

MONDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Three previously unknown monoclonal antibodies can neutralize most circulating HIV-1 isolates, and one of these partially imitates the interaction of the CD4 receptor with the viral envelope protein but focuses on a site consistent between strains, allowing for broad neutralization, according to the results of two studies published online July 8 in Science.

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Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Linked to HPV Infection

FRIDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Infection with genus β human papillomavirus (HPV) appears to be associated with incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, with the risk higher for long-term users of systemic glucocorticoids, according to a study published online July 8 in BMJ.

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New Gene Abnormality Location Tied to Kidney Disease

FRIDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- A new gene locus may be associated with the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), which is typically characterized by nephrotic syndrome and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), according to a study published online July 8 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Somatic BRCA1/2 Aberrations Frequent in Ovarian Cancer

THURSDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Somatic and germline mutations and expression loss in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are common enough in ovarian cancer to warrant assessment in trials for predicting the benefit of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors, according to research published online July 6 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Blood Protein Reflects Severity and Progression in Alzheimer's

THURSDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Elevated plasma concentration of clusterin is associated with Alzheimer's disease pathology, severity, and rate of clinical progression, according to research published in the July issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Fish Oil Usage Linked to Lower Risk of Certain Breast Cancers

THURSDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The use of fish oil supplementation may be associated with a lower risk of certain breast cancers, according to research published in the July issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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H. Pylori's Link to Cancer Risk Unaffected by Other Factors

THURSDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- People who have evidence of prior Helicobacter pylori infection are at reduced risk for some forms of esophageal cancer, and this risk reduction is not modified by genotype, other host characteristics, or environmental factors, according to a study in the July issue of Gastroenterology.

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FDA: Cepheid Recalls MRSA/SA Blood Culture Assay

WEDNESDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- In response to an increasing number of complaints of false-negative results, Cepheid has alerted customers to a recall of all lots of Xpert methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA/SA) blood culture assay products for use with the GeneXpert Dx System.

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SPECT Imaging Helps Judge Sudden Cardiac Death Risk

WEDNESDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) greater than 35 percent, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can help identify those at higher risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), according to a study in the July 13 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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FOBT Accuracy Declines As Temperature Rises

WEDNESDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) for the detection of colorectal cancer is significantly less accurate in the summer than in the winter, according to research published online July 5 in Gut.

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Vaccinations Not Associated With Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk

WEDNESDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- There does not appear to be any association between routine vaccinations in adults and an increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to a study published online July 5 in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

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Breast Cancer Risk in Men With BRCA2 Mutation Quantified

WEDNESDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Men with a BRCA2 genetic mutation have a 7.1 percent chance of developing breast cancer by the time they turn 70, and an 8.4 percent chance by the time they turn 80, according to research published online June 28 in the Journal of Medical Genetics.

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Olaparib Shows Benefit in Cancer With BRCA Mutations

WEDNESDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Olaparib may be useful in treating women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations who have advanced breast or ovarian cancer, according to the results of two studies published online July 6 in The Lancet.

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Shorter Telomeres Linked to Higher Cancer Incidence

TUESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- There appears to be a statistically significant inverse relationship between telomere length and the incidence of cancer as well as cancer mortality, according to research published in the July 7 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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CDC: U.S. Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates Up

TUESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates have increased in the United States since 2002 and mammography rates have plateaued, while millions of people have not undergone recommended CRC screening, and millions of women have not had a recent mammogram, according to research published July 6 in an early issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Second Opinion May Be Warranted Before Prostatectomy

MONDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- A mandatory second opinion to interpret prostate needle biopsy prior to radical prostatectomy in a few cases results in differences that may affect therapy, according to research published in the July issue of the The Journal of Urology.

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West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease Rate Lowest Since '01

FRIDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- There were 386 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease reported in the United States in 2009, for an incidence of 0.13 cases per 100,000 population, the lowest incidence since 2001, according to a report published in the July 2 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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CDC: Vaccinia Virus Infection Linked to Sexual Contact

FRIDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Following sexual contact with her military serviceman boyfriend, who had been recently vaccinated for smallpox, a woman in Washington state contracted vaccinia virus infection in her vagina, according to a case report published in the July 2 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Genetic Signatures of Exceptional Longevity ID'd

FRIDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Though environment and family history contribute to living a long life, genetic variants play a critical role in conferring exceptional longevity, according to a report published online July 1 in Science.

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Bone Area Predicts Defect Development, Cartilage Loss

FRIDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Subchondral bone mineral density (sBMD) predicts cartilage defect development but not cartilage loss, while bone area predicts both cartilage loss and defect development, according to a study in the July issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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Report Addresses Physician Financial Conflicts in Care

THURSDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- In a new report, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) urges U.S. teaching hospitals to establish policies that ensure financial relationships between physicians and industry do not result in conflicts of interest that influence patient care.

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Small Polyps Found in Virtual Colonoscopy Rarely Malignant

THURSDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Small polyps discovered in computed tomography colonography (CTC) rarely contain high-grade dysplasia or are malignant, and the malignancy rate for large polyps discovered in CTC is less than 1 percent, suggesting that less aggressive management of lesions detected by CTC may be warranted, according to research published in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Lupus Associated With Oxidative, Nitrosative Stress

THURSDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- People with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have higher levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, and the levels of markers appear to increase with the degree of disease activity, according to research published in the July issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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