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May 2010 Briefing - Pathology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for May 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Amniotic Stem Cells Promising for Cardiac Regeneration

FRIDAY, May 28 (HealthDay News) -- A type of stem cell derived from amniotic membranes can differentiate into functioning cardiac muscle cells, and is therefore a promising source for cardiac regenerative medicine, according to a rodent study published in the May 28 issue of Circulation Research.

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HER2 Screening on Core Needle Biopsies Found Reliable

FRIDAY, May 28 (HealthDay News) -- Screening breast core needle biopsies (CNB) for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) is reliable when applying new American Society of Clinical Oncology-College of American Pathologists (ASCO-CAP) testing criteria, according to research published online May 24 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Cardiac Event Biomarker Linked to Volume Overload

FRIDAY, May 28 (HealthDay News) -- Among stable hemodialysis patients, N-terminal probrain type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) may not be associated with cardiac dysfunction but appears to be dependent on factors associated with volume overload, and may also be elevated in those with malnutrition, according to a study published online May 27 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Baseline DPP-IV Not Found to Predict Incident Diabetes

FRIDAY, May 28 (HealthDay News) -- Fasting levels of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) don't appear to predict later diabetes, according to research published in the May issue of Diabetes Care.

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CRP, D-Dimer Levels Don't Affect Statin-Mortality Link

FRIDAY, May 28 (HealthDay News) -- In peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients, statin use is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality, though this association is not influenced by baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) or D-dimer levels, according to research published in the May 1 issue of the American Journal of Cardiology.

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Genetic Tests That Don't Ease Decision Making Not Desired

FRIDAY, May 28 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic information that does not clarify decision making about cancer treatment may not be desired, and its impact differs depending on clinical relevance to the recipient, according to research published online May 24 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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More Systemic Inflammation May Mean Higher CAD Risk

FRIDAY, May 28 (HealthDay News) -- There appears to be a positive, independent and dose-dependent relation between systemic inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and homocysteine, and the estimated 10-year risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), according to research published in the May 1 issue of the American Journal of Cardiology.

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CDC Outlines State Health-Care-Associated Infection Data

THURSDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention outlined state health-care-associated infection (HAI) data during a telebriefing on May 27 to coincide with a report in the May 28 issue of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Stem Cell Research Amended

THURSDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- The National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) have released amended voluntary guidelines for the ethical conduct of research involving human embryonic stem (hES) cells.

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Early Glycemic Control Vital in Type 1 Diabetes

THURSDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Intense glycemic control early on should be attempted for individuals with type 1 diabetes to reduce the risk of complications related to diabetes arising over time, according to research published in the May issue of Diabetes.

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Antiretroviral Therapy Greatly Cuts HIV Partner Transmission

THURSDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- In heterosexual HIV-1 patients, antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce the risk of HIV transmission to sexual partners by 92 percent, according to research published online May 27 in The Lancet.

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Inflammatory Biomarker Linked to CHD in Type 2 Diabetes

THURSDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- The newly recognized inflammatory biomarker lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) appears to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) in people with type 2 diabetes, according to research published in the May issue of Diabetes.

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Selenium Inversely Linked to Gastric, Esophageal Cancers

THURSDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Selenium status appears to be inversely associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and there may also be an inverse association between esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and selenium status in certain subgroups, according to a study published in the May issue of Gastroenterology.

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Hepatitis B Carrier Status Tied to Increased Liver Cancer Risk

WEDNESDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a substantially higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death than those not infected with the virus, according to a study in the May issue of Gastroenterology.

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Insulin Use May Lower Cancer Risk in Type 2 Diabetes

WEDNESDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- In Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, the use of insulin appears protective against the development of cancer, though hyperglycemia may increase cancer risk, according to research published in the May issue of Diabetes.

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Women With IBD at Lower Risk for Colorectal Cancer Than Men

WEDNESDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) than men with the disease, according to a study published in the May issue of Gastroenterology.

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Breast Imaging Techniques May Enhance Cancer Detection

WEDNESDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- Contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging can detect malignancy in probably benign lesions in the accepted range for mammographically detected Breast Imaging and Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 lesions, and mammographic digital screening offers the potential to increase the rate of invasive cancers detected on the basis of calcifications, according to two studies published in the June issue of Radiology.

Abstract - Weinstein
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Study Offers Insights Into Fibrin Assembly Mechanisms

WEDNESDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- A new investigation of synthetic fibrin knob peptide structures in solution and their dynamic binding with fibrinogen/fibrin holes may lead to a more thorough knowledge of fibrin assembly mechanisms, and establish criteria for designing anticoagulants that can inhibit fibrin assembly associated with heart attack, stroke and tissue damage, according to a study published online May 18 in Blood.

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Common School Scoliosis Screening Test Lacks Precision

TUESDAY, May 25 (HealthDay News) -- The simple and common forward bending test (FBT) used in school scoliosis screening programs lacks precision for detecting spinal curvature and by itself is insufficient, according to a meta-analysis published in the May 1 issue of Spine.

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Poor Antiplatelet Response Not Fully Explained by Gene

TUESDAY, May 25 (HealthDay News) -- While antiplatelet drug response is clearly linked to the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism, the gene's presence does not explain most instances of poor antiplatelet response, even with other clinical factors taken into account, according to research published in the June 1 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Visceral Fat, Total Brain Volume Inversely Associated

MONDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- In middle-aged adults, abdominal fat -- especially visceral fat -- is inversely associated with total brain volume, according to research published online May 20 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Cesarean Delivery and Celiac Disease Significantly Associated

THURSDAY, May 20 (HealthDay News) -- There is a significant association between cesarean delivery and celiac disease but not Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, according to research published online May 17 in Pediatrics.

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Research Provides Guidance for Stage III Melanoma Follow-Up

THURSDAY, May 20 (HealthDay News) -- Stage III melanoma patients or their family members detect nearly half of first relapses -- substantially more than are detected by physicians or screening radiologic tests -- and routine physical exams beyond a certain time frame are likely to detect few first systemic relapses, according to a study in the May 20 Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Diabetic Retinopathy Detectors Equally Effective

THURSDAY, May 20 (HealthDay News) -- A new automated detection algorithm appears to be as effective at detecting diabetic retinopathy as an established algorithm used in a large early-detection project, according to a study published online April 16 in Ophthalmology.

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CISH Variants Associated With Infectious Diseases

WEDNESDAY, May 19 (HealthDay News) -- Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH) are associated with greater susceptibility to bacteremia, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria, according to research published online May 19 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Ketogenic Diet Linked to Altered Insulin Sensitivity

WEDNESDAY, May 19 (HealthDay News) -- In rats, the use of a ketogenic diet appears to negatively affect glucose homeostasis, though the effects are quickly reversed when the diet is halted, according to research published online April 28 in Endocrinology.

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Major Depression Prevalent After Traumatic Brain Injury

TUESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- Within the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), more than half of patients meet criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), which independently predicts poorer health-related quality of life, according to research published in the May 19 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Kidney Function Measures Predict Risk of Death

TUESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- In the general population, a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and a high urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) are independent predictors of mortality, according to an analysis published online May 18 in The Lancet.

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Many Have Low Distress During Prostate Cancer Surveillance

MONDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- Men with low-risk prostate cancer on active surveillance generally have favorably low anxiety and distress in the first nine months of surveillance, according to research published in the May issue of The Journal of Urology. Another article in the same issue examines how health status and life expectancy influenced selection of men age 75 and older for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screenings before the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against screening them.

Abstract- van den Bergh
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Higher Pesticide Exposure Linked to Increased ADHD Risk

MONDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of organophosphate exposure have been associated with adverse effects on neurodevelopment, and cross-sectional data suggest that levels of exposure common in U.S. children may contribute to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence, according to research published online May 17 in Pediatrics.

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Obesity, Diabetes Associated With Low Free Testosterone

MONDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- Among obese men older than 45 years of age, 40 percent of those without diabetes and half of those with diabetes have below-normal free testosterone (FT) concentrations, according to research published online in Diabetes Care.

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Common Diagnostic Tests for UTI Miss Many Infections

MONDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- Commonly used tests for diagnosing lower urinary tract infections in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms but no dysuria lack sensitivity and should be abandoned, according to research published in the May issue of The Journal of Urology.

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Disagreement May Be High in Melanoma Diagnoses

FRIDAY, May 14 (HealthDay News) -- Though histopathologic analysis is still the gold standard for the pathologic diagnosis of melanoma, the discordance rate in routine histopathologic interpretation of melanocytic neoplasms can be high, according to research published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Mammograms Before Age 40 May Not Be Appropriate

FRIDAY, May 14 (HealthDay News) -- Screening mammography for women under age 40 results in high rates of recall and additional imaging but low cancer detection rates, according to research published online May 3 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Autism Onset Patterns Linked to Developmental Outcomes

THURSDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- In children under age 3, the onset of autism has three distinct patterns -- regression, plateau, and no loss or plateau -- which substantially affect developmental, diagnostic and educational outcomes, according to a study published April 2 in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

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Excessive Antioxidants May Increase Genetic Abnormalities

THURSDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- Taking excessive amounts of antioxidants, such as high-dose supplements of vitamin C and E, can increase genetic abnormalities in cells, which may raise the risk for developing cancer, according to a study published online May 4 in Stem Cells.

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Variables Help Guide Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer

THURSDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- Variables that are available at prostate cancer diagnosis and first surveillance biopsy during active surveillance can be used to inform men of the probability of an unfavorable biopsy, according to research published in the May issue of The Journal of Urology.

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Interval Colorectal Cancer Risk Linked to Colonoscopy Quality

WEDNESDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) in the interval between screening colonoscopy and follow-up surveillance colonoscopy is greater for patients whose endoscopists have lower adenoma detection rates, according to research published in the May 13 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Removing Financial Incentives May Reduce Performance

WEDNESDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- The focus of clinicians may change and their performance levels could drop when previously established financial incentives are removed, according to research published May 11 in BMJ.

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High BMI Partly Explains Family-Based Diabetes Risk

WEDNESDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- A high body mass index (BMI) and, to some extent, specific lifestyle factors may explain a substantial part of the association between family history of diabetes and type 2 diabetes risk, according to research published in the April issue of Diabetes Care.

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Micrometastases Mean Worse Prognosis in Breast Cancer

WEDNESDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer patients with micrometastases in their lymph nodes have a worse prognosis than node-negative patients, and may be more similar in prognosis to patients with macrometastases, according to research published online May 10 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Two Novel Gene Variants Linked to Alzheimer's Disease

TUESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Two biologically plausible, novel genetic variations are associated with Alzheimer's disease; however, variations may not improve the ability to predict incident Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the May 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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COPD Exacerbations May Raise Risk of Cardiovascular Events

TUESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, according to research published in the May issue of Chest.

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Restless Legs Syndrome Is Frequently Familial

TUESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has a high familial rate, and siblings of those who are severely affected by the disease appear to be at increased risk of developing it themselves, according to research published in the May issue of the Archives of Neurology.

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AHA Cites New Evidence for Air Pollution's Role in Heart Events

MONDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has a causal role in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, even if the exposure is not long term, and it is a modifiable risk factor, according to an update to an American Heart Association scientific statement published online May 10 in Circulation.

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Fluctuating Blood Pressure May Increase Risk of CVD in Elderly

MONDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- High blood pressure (BP) and greater BP fluctuations are associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease in older adults, according to research published in the May issue of the Archives of Neurology.

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Single Night of Lost Sleep Implicated in Insulin Resistance

MONDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- A single night of little sleep can cause metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, according to research published online April 6 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Genetics Link Elevated Triglycerides to CHD Risk

FRIDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- New genetic findings support the notion that elevated triglyceride levels have a causal association with coronary heart disease, according to a study in the May 8 issue of The Lancet.

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Microalbuminuria Can Predict Complications in Hypertension

FRIDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- Microalbuminuria independently predicts higher risk of renal and cardiovascular complications in patients with primary hypertension but without diabetes, according to research published online April 29 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Spouses of Dementia Patients Have Higher Risk of Dementia

FRIDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- Among older married couples in which one spouse has dementia, the other spouse -- especially the husband -- has a significantly higher risk of also developing dementia, and a potential causal factor may be the chronic, often severe stress associated with dementia caregiving, according to a study published online May 6 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Estrogen Use Linked to More Mammograms, Biopsies

FRIDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- Postmenopausal women taking estrogen alone are more likely to have otherwise avoidable mammograms with short-interval follow-up recommendations or breast biopsies, and their biopsies may be less commonly diagnosed as cancer; however, breast cancer detection among these women is not significantly compromised except, perhaps, in the early years of use, according to research published online May 3 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Panel Urges More Action on Environmental Cancer Risks

THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- The burden of environmentally-induced cancer has been greatly underestimated, and action must be taken to assess the effects of environmental contaminants on human health, according to a May 6 report from the President's Cancer Panel.

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Vaccine May Have Role in Dravet Onset; Does Not Cause Disease

THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- Pertussis vaccination may cause an earlier onset of Dravet syndrome in children who are destined to develop the disease because of a mutation, but the vaccine does not appear to affect outcomes and there is no reason to withhold it, according to research published online May 5 in The Lancet Neurology.

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Study Questions Milk Drinking, Renal Cell Carcinoma Link

THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to the findings of previous research, the suggested link between milk drinking and an increased risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) may be unwarranted, according to research published in the May issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Participation of Fellow in Colonoscopies Boosts Detection

THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- When gastrointestinal (GI) fellows -- especially third-year fellows -- are involved in the performance of routine screening colonoscopies, the detection rates for adenomas and polyps are increased, according to a study in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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High Resting Heart Rate Predicts Major Cardio Events

THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), a high resting heart rate is associated with an increase in major cardiovascular events, and the risk goes up as resting heart rate increases, according to research published in the April 1 issue of the American Journal of Cardiology.

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Drinking During Pregnancy May Raise Child's Leukemia Risk

THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- In utero exposure to alcohol is associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is relatively rare, according to research published in the May issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Signs of Early AMD Less Common Among Asians

THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- The age-specific prevalence of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is comparable between Asians and whites, but estimates of early AMD rates are lower in Asians than whites, according to research published in the May issue of Ophthalmology.

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Mutation Linked to Tourette's Identified in Family

WEDNESDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- A genetic mutation resulting in abnormal histamine biosynthesis has been identified in a father and his offspring, all of whom have Tourette's syndrome, pointing to a role for histaminergic neurotransmission in the modulation and mechanism of Tourette's, according to research published online May 5 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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WHO Committee Cites Major Gaps in H1N1 Knowledge

WEDNESDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- Although researchers have obtained important information about the natural history and clinical management of 2009 H1N1 virus infection, considerable research gaps remain, according to a review published in the May 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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White Paper Addresses Pros and Cons of HPV Typing

WEDNESDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- A new white paper -- "What is the Role of HPV Typing in the United States Now and in the Next Five Years in a Vaccinated Population?" -- provides guidance to clinicians about the administration of advanced screening technologies for cervical cancer prevention. The paper was published online April 24 in Gynecologic Oncology.

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PSA Kinetics Not Reliable in Predicting Adverse Pathology

WEDNESDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity (PSAV) and doubling time (PSADT) do not appear to be reliable in predicting adverse pathology, and should not replace annual surveillance biopsy in men undergoing active surveillance for prostate cancer, according to a study published online May 3 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Biomarker Measurement Has Mixed Predictive Value

TUESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Biomarker measurement may result in only modest improvement in coronary heart disease risk prediction in postmenopausal women, but inflammatory biomarkers are associated with heart failure risk in older adults, and measurement may improve heart failure risk stratification, according to two studies published in the May 11 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Abstract - Kim
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Common Heart Defect Linked With Brain Aneurysms

MONDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- People with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a common heart defect, may be at higher risk for brain aneurysms, according to research published in the May 4 issue of Neurology.

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Anti-Reflux Surgery Not Seen to Prevent Esophageal Cancers

MONDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to arguments supporting the theory that anti-reflux surgery prevents the subsequent development of esophageal and cardia cancers, it does not appear to have any such preventive benefit, according to research published in the April issue of Gastroenterology.

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