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May 2011 Briefing - Pathology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for May 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Cell Phones May Be Tied to Higher Risk of Glioma

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- Cell phones may be associated with an increased risk of brain cancer, a panel of experts reporting to the World Health Organization (WHO) announced May 31.

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Operative Time of Day Not Tied to Transplant Survival

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- The operative time of day does not significantly affect one-year survival of thoracic transplant recipients, according to a study published in the June 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Effect Estimates May Be Inflated in Biomarker Studies

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- Biomarker effects are often overestimated in highly cited studies compared to the effects reported in subsequent meta-analyses of the same associations, according to a review published in the June 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Stress and Abuse Not Linked to Multiple Sclerosis

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- Stress at home in adulthood and physical or sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence are not associated with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published in the May 31 issue of Neurology.

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Use of Energy Drinks Should Be Discouraged in Children

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- Sports and energy drink consumption is widespread, and youth should be made aware of the potential health risks of those drinks, according to a clinical report published online May 29 in Pediatrics.

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APOL1 Donor Gene Linked to Renal Graft Survival

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- Significantly shorter renal allograft survival is seen in recipients of kidneys donated by African-American (AA) donors with two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) risk variants compared to patients receiving a kidney from a donor with zero or one risk variant, according to a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Environmentally Mediated Diseases and Costs Increasing

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- The annual economic burden of environmentally mediated diseases in U.S. children increased from $54.9 billion in 2002 to $76.6 billion in 2008, according to a study published in the May issue of Health Affairs.

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Phone Counseling Improves Outcomes in Diabetes Patients

FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) coupled with a walking program may not improve A1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and depression, but it appears to improve other important outcomes, according to research published online April 6 in Medical Care.

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Modic Changes Common in Patients With Lower Back Pain

FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- A high prevalence of Modic changes is seen among Spanish patients with chronic lower back pain (LBP) for whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been prescribed, according to a study published in the May issue of The Spine Journal.

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Most Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients Develop Anemia

FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Anemia develops in the majority of patients who are hospitalized for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC) is associated with improved outcome, according to a study published in the May issue of Neurosurgery.

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Childhood Obesity Linked to Psoriasis

FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Obese children are significantly more likely to have psoriasis than their normal-weight peers, and may have increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors, according to a study published online April 29 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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Peripheral Nerve Injury May Cause Substantial Disability

FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with peripheral upper-extremity nerve injury may have substantial disability and pain at more than six months following the injury, according to a study published in the May 18 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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Frequent Bronchoconstriction Tied to Airway Remodeling

THURSDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- Experimentally induced bronchoconstriction may promote airway remodeling in patients with asthma, according to a study published in the May 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Surgical Delay Associated With Worse Prostatectomy Outcome

THURSDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- Delaying radical prostatectomy by six months or more in men who meet the D'Amico low-risk criteria for prostate cancer is correlated with worse outcomes, according to a study published in the June issue of The Journal of Urology.

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Locomotor Training for Stroke Rehab Offers No Advantage

WEDNESDAY, May 25 (HealthDay News) -- There is no significant difference between locomotor training and home exercise for rehabilitation after a stroke, according to a study published in the May 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Contact With Drug Industry Linked to Positive Attitudes

WEDNESDAY, May 25 (HealthDay News) -- The extent of contact that medical students have with the pharmaceutical industry is associated with positive attitudes about marketing, according to a review published online May 24 in PLoS Medicine.

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Elevated Copeptin Linked to Mortality Risk in Elderly

WEDNESDAY, May 25 (HealthDay News) -- Among elderly patients with heart failure, elevated concentrations of copeptin alone or in combination with elevated concentrations of N-terminal fragment of the precursor to B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are correlated with increased all-cause mortality risk, according to a study published in the May 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation Tied to Increased Mortality

TUESDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- Women with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) may have an increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality, according to a study published May 25 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Heart-Friendly Fatty Acids Linked to Prostate Cancer

TUESDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of the ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid may increase the risk of high-grade prostate cancer; whereas, high levels of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) may reduce the risk, according to a study published online April 24 in the American Journal of Epidemiology.

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Herniated Lumbar Disc Tied to Poor Vocational Prognosis

TUESDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of an unfavorable vocational prognosis after hospital contact for herniated lumbar disc (HLD) is substantial and is associated with various risk factors, according to a study published in the May 20 issue of Spine.

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Inhaled Anticholinergics Tied to Acute Urinary Retention

TUESDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- Men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using both short- and long-acting inhaled anticholinergic (IAC) drugs have an increased risk of developing acute urinary retention (AUR), according to a study published in the May 23 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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African-Americans With MS May Have Lower Vitamin D Levels

TUESDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- African-Americans with multiple sclerosis (MS) may have lower serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but disease severity is not associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, according to a study published in the May 24 issue of Neurology.

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Use of CCTA Screening Tied to Increased Invasive Testing

TUESDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- Low-risk adults who undergo coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) screening use more medications and undergo invasive coronary procedures, according to a study published online May 23 in Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Viral Load Tied to Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis C

MONDAY, May 23 (HealthDay News) -- High maternal viral load is associated with vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV-VT), but polymorphisms in interleukin 28B (IL28B) are not, according to a study published online March 16 in Hepatology.

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Severe Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Pneumonia Deaths

MONDAY, May 23 (HealthDay News) -- In hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia, severe vitamin D deficiency, but not antimicrobial peptide levels, is associated with increased 30-day mortality, according to a study published in the May issue of Respirology.

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PCR Test Unreliable in Post-Antibiotic Lyme Arthritis

MONDAY, May 23 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with persistent Lyme arthritis (LA) which has been treated with antibiotics, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) DNA in the synovial fluid (SF) is not a reliable indicator of active infection, according to a study published online May 17 in Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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Many Medical Students Lack Confidence in Medical Law

FRIDAY, May 20 (HealthDay News) -- The majority of medical students lack confidence in their knowledge and skills across many areas of medical law, according to a study published online May 16 in the Journal of Medical Ethics.

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Limiting Gadolinium Use May Avert Renal Systemic Fibrosis

FRIDAY, May 20 (HealthDay News) -- Following the adoption of restrictive guidelines for gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) administration, no new nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) cases have been identified in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) examinations, even in patients with a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), according to a study published online May 17 in Radiology.

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Radiation for Hodgkin's Linked to Increased Mortality

THURSDAY, May 19 (HealthDay News) -- Although breast cancer may be diagnosed earlier, women with a history of radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) are more likely to have bilateral breast cancer, and die due to other causes, according to a study published online May 16 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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New Test Detects Recent Infection With Toxoplasmosis

THURSDAY, May 19 (HealthDay News) -- A new test to detect whether a toxoplasmosis infection has been acquired within the past four months has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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In Vivo 3-D Cervical Spine Kinematics Demonstrated

THURSDAY, May 19 (HealthDay News) -- In vivo three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) kinematics of the cervical spine during head rotation identifies differences in cervical motion between patients with cervical spondylosis and healthy controls, according to a study published in the May 1 issue of Spine.

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Initial Fecal Occult Blood Test Predicts Cancer Risk

THURSDAY, May 19 (HealthDay News) -- Patients screened for colorectal cancer via immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) can be stratified for cancer risk by degree of baseline fecal hemoglobin concentration, according to research published online May 17 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Family Cancer Histories Are Not Highly Accurate

WEDNESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- General population reports on family history for major adult cancers are not very accurate, according to a study published online May 11 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Prenatal Vitamin A May Not Reduce Mortality

WEDNESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- Weekly supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene during pregnancy is not associated with a reduction in pregnancy-related or infant mortality in Bangladesh, according to a study published in the May 18 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Most Patients Treated for GERD Attain Remission

WEDNESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- Most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) who are treated with esomeprazole therapy or laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) attain remission at five years, according to a study published in the May 18 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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High Coffee Intake May Reduce Prostate Cancer Risk

WEDNESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of advanced or lethal prostate cancer is lower in men who regularly consume coffee, according to a study published online May 17 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Triamcinolone Ineffective in Eustachian Tube Dysfunction

WEDNESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- Tympanometric manifestation of eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) may not be normalized by treatment with intranasal aqueous triamcinolone acetonide (TAA-AQ), according to a study published in the May issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

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Most Nondermatologist Lesion Referrals Are Nonmalignant

WEDNESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- Nondermatologist referrals for skin malignancies include mainly noncancerous lesions, but consulting dermatologists are better able to identify incident malignant lesions in addition to the primary lesion of concern, according to a study published in the May issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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Major Birth Defects Not Linked to Newer Antiepileptic Drugs

TUESDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to newer-generation antiepileptic drugs in the first trimester of pregnancy is not correlated with an increase in major birth defects in a Danish cohort of live-born infants, according to a study published in the May 18 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Heart Disease Risk Similar in Children Treated for ADHD

TUESDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- Use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) agents by children is not significantly associated with cardiovascular events or death, according to a study published online May 16 in Pediatrics.

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Tele-ICU Tied to Lower Mortality, Shorter Hospital Stay

TUESDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of a tele-intensive care unit (ICU) intervention is correlated with reduced mortality risk, length of hospital stay, preventable complications rates, and improvements in best practice adherence, according to a study published online May 16 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Early Diagnoses of Autism Increasing in Massachusetts

MONDAY, May 16 (HealthDay News) -- Early diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are increasing in Massachusetts, especially among boys, according to a study published online May 16 in Pediatrics.

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No Clear Evidence for Role of Selenium in Cancer Prevention

MONDAY, May 16 (HealthDay News) -- Selenium exposure has no clear effect on cancer incidence, and supplementation does not seem to prevent cancer, according to a review published online May 11 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

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MRKAd5 Vaccine Found Ineffective Against HIV-1

MONDAY, May 16 (HealthDay News) -- A vaccine tested in a cohort of men and women in South Africa failed to prevent acquisition of HIV-1 or a decrease in viral load in those who acquired the virus, according to research published online May 12 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Early HIV Therapy Reduces Partner's Infection Risk

FRIDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- People with HIV may be able to reduce the risk of transmitting the infection to sexual partners by starting an antiretroviral regimen early, while their immune systems are healthy, according the results of the HPTN 052 trial, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The trial was slated to end in 2015, but the findings are being released early after a scheduled interim data review by an independent data and safety monitoring board.

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Childhood Eczema, Rhinitis Predict Adult Asthma

FRIDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- Children who have eczema and rhinitis may be more susceptible to atopic asthma in adulthood, according to research published online April 4 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

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Peginterferon in Hepatitis C Linked to Higher Mortality

FRIDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term peginterferon treatment in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C is associated with higher overall mortality mainly due to non-liver-related causes, according to a study published in the April issue of Hepatology.

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Fractalkine and Receptor Linked to Adipose Inflammation

FRIDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 may be involved in adipose inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the May issue of Diabetes.

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Low Ratio of Index to Ring Finger Length Tied to ALS

FRIDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- A low ratio of index to ring finger length (2D:4D ratio), which is a surrogate marker for prenatal testosterone levels in both men and women, is found in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), according to a study published in the June issue of the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.

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Arthritic Bone Erosions Can Be Detected by Ultrasound

FRIDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- Most arthritic bone erosions seen on ultrasound (US) imaging are cortical breaks, which are detected on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans, according to a study published in the May issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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Poor Sleep Quality Linked to Worse Glucose Control

THURSDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- Early-middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes show an association between poor sleep quality and higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and estimated insulin resistance, according to a study published in the May issue of Diabetes Care.

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Aromatase Inhibitors Improve Breast Conservation Rates

THURSDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with clinical stage II to III estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer who undergo preoperative treatment with the aromatase inhibitors (AIs) exemestane, letrozole, or anastrozole have improved surgical outcomes, according to a study published online May 9 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Poor Cardiovascular Outcomes for U.S. Women

THURSDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- In the United States, women have worse cardiovascular treatment and outcomes than men, according to the Women's Health in American Hospitals report released on May 3 by HealthGrades.

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Heller's Myotomy Not Superior Treatment for Achalasia

THURSDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- Laparoscopic Heller's myotomy (LHM) appears no more effective than pneumatic dilation for treatment of achalasia, according to research published in the May 12 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Researchers Study Stem Cells in Human Lungs

WEDNESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have found evidence of identifiable human lung stem cells, which appear capable of self-renewal and may have potential for restoring tissue in damaged lungs; their findings have been published in the May 12 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Coffee May Lower Breast Cancer Risk in Older Women

WEDNESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- A high daily intake of coffee is associated with a significant decrease in the risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to a study published online May 11 in Breast Cancer Research.

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Neonatal Vitamin D Deficiency Tied to Respiratory Disease

WEDNESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Healthy neonates with vitamin D deficiency are at a higher risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first year of life, according to a study published online May 9 in Pediatrics.

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Medical Education Participants Recognize Funding Bias

WEDNESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Although most medical professionals believe that commercial funding of continuing medical education (CME) introduces bias, most are not willing to pay higher fees to offset or eliminate such funding sources, according to a study published in the May 9 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Heart Failure Linked to Higher Osteoporotic Fracture Risk

WEDNESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Heart failure is associated with an increased risk for vertebral compression fracture (VCF), and more than half of those with VCF have multiple fractures, according to a study published online May 10 in Circulation: Heart Failure.

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Limited Evidence Exists for Alzheimer's Risk Factors

WEDNESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- The existing evidence is insufficient to draw firm conclusions about the association of any modifiable factor with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a study published online May 9 in the Archives of Neurology.

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Novel Genomic Predictor Indicates Breast CA Survival

TUESDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- A genomic predictor combining estrogen receptor (ER) status with chemoresistance, chemosensitivity, and endocrine sensitivity may identify patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer with a high chance of survival following taxane and anthracycline chemotherapy, according to a study published in the May 11 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Peak Intraocular Pressure Tied to Glaucoma Progression

TUESDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- Visual field (VF) progression in treated glaucoma is affected by intraocular pressure (IOP)-dependent and IOP-independent risk factors, according to a study published in the May issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

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NSAIDs May Increase Cardio Risk in MI Patients

TUESDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI), even short-term treatment with most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be associated with an increased risk of recurrent MI and death, according to a study published online May 9 in Circulation.

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Colonoscopy Repeated Too Soon in Many Older Adults

TUESDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- Screening colonoscopy may be overused in average-risk older adults, and those with better life expectancies are less likely to experience a net burden from colorectal cancer screening and follow-up than those whose life expectancies are low, according to two articles published online May 9 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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CT Pulmonary Angiography Tied to Embolism Overdiagnosis

TUESDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with pulmonary embolism (PE), computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is associated with overdiagnosis reflected by increasing incidence, limited change in mortality, and reduced case fatality, according to a study published in the May 9 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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High Acetaminophen Use Linked to Cancer Risk

TUESDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- High use of acetaminophen for four or more days per week for four or more years is associated with an almost two-fold increased risk of incident hematologic malignancies other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), according to a study published online May 9 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Underestimated

MONDAY, May 9 (HealthDay News) -- Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be more prevalent in children than previously estimated and are found in children in mainstream schools as well as special education schools, according to a study published online May 9 in The American Journal of Psychiatry.

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Low Vitamin D Tied to Adiposity and High HDL in Children

MONDAY, May 9 (HealthDay News) -- Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels are associated with high measures of adiposity and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in both black and white children, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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True Interval Breast Cancers May Have Aggressive Features

MONDAY, May 9 (HealthDay News) -- True and missed interval cancers are more likely to have a higher grade and stage compared with screen-detected breast cancers, and true interval cancers have additional adverse prognostic features, according to a study published online May 3 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Arsenic in Drinking Water Tied to Heart Disease Mortality

MONDAY, May 9 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to arsenic in drinking water appears to be adversely associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh, particularly among cigarette smokers, according to a study published online May 5 in BMJ.

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FDA OK's Test to Spot Drug-Resistant Staph

MONDAY, May 9 (HealthDay News) -- The first Staphylococcus aureus diagnostic that can quickly identify the staph bacterium and whether it's resistant to methicillin and similar antibiotics has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Breast Augmentation Blurs Mammography Results

FRIDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- Mammographic findings fail to differentiate between benign and malignant carcinoma microcalcifications after autologous fat injection for breast augmentation, according to a study published in the April issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

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Higher Metabolic Rates May Predict Early Mortality

FRIDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- Higher metabolic rates, measured by 24-hour energy expenditure (24EE) or resting metabolic rate (RMR), may predict early natural mortality in Pima Indians, according to a study published online March 30 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Ultrasound Viable Option to Radiography in Acute Dyspnea

FRIDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- For most pulmonary diseases causing dyspnea, ultrasonography and radiography demonstrate high concordance, but ultrasound is more accurate at identifying free pleural effusion, according to a study published in the May issue of Chest.

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Being Social in Old Age May Prevent Cognitive Decline

THURSDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults who are more socially active may experience less cognitive decline in old age, according to a study published online April 8 in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.

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Cardiac Catheterization Useful for Children but Has Risks

THURSDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- Although cardiac catheterization in children has inherent risks, it can be used for diagnosis and treatment of several heart conditions, according to a scientific statement by the American Heart Association published online May 4 in Circulation.

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Racial Disparities Persist in Colorectal Cancer Screening

THURSDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- Racial or ethnic differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening persist, especially in blacks and Hispanics, despite expanded Medicare coverage for CRC screening tests, according to a study published in the May issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Condition-Specific Comorbidity Index May Improve Accuracy

THURSDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- A condition-specific comorbidity index may be significantly better than the commonly used Deyo Comorbidity Index for adjusting mortality, morbidities, and hospital disposition measures, according to a study published in the April 20 issue of Spine.

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FISH May Indicate Prognosis of Atypical Spitzoid Tumors

THURSDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis may improve the prognostic evaluation of atypical Spitzoid tumors, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Radical Prostatectomy Beats Watchful Waiting at 15 Years

WEDNESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- After 15 years, radical prostatectomy appears to be associated with a reduction in the rate of death from prostate cancer as compared to watchful waiting, according to a study published in the May 5 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Autism Prevalence in England Similar in Adults and Children

WEDNESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adults in England is about 10 per 1,000, which is similar to that seen in children, and prevalence does not appear to be associated with age, according to research published in the May issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Cerebral Cortex Enlargement Found in Children With Autism

WEDNESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have generalized cerebral cortical enlargement with disproportionate enlargement in temporal lobe white matter, according to a study published in the May issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Low Urinary Sodium Excretion Linked to Higher Mortality

WEDNESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Lower sodium excretion is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, according to a study published in the May 4 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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β-Agonist Treatment of COPD May Reduce Mortality

WEDNESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) initially treated by long-acting inhaled β-agonists may have lower mortality than those initially treated by long-acting anticholinergics, according to a study published in the May 3 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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CT Colonography More Sensitive in Detecting Cancer

TUESDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- Computed tomographic (CT) colonography is more sensitive than optical colonoscopy (OC) in detecting colorectal cancer, especially when both cathartic and tagging agents are combined in the bowel preparation, according to a meta-analysis published in the May issue of Radiology.

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Midlife Obesity Linked to Increased Risk of Dementia

TUESDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- Being overweight or obese in midlife may increase the risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD), according to a study published in the May 3 issue of Neurology.

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Baseline Psychiatric Status Tied to Postdeployment PTSD

TUESDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- Psychiatric status at baseline and deployment-related physical injuries are correlated with screening positive for postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, according to a study published in the May issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Children Infected With HIV Perinatally Faring Well

MONDAY, May 2 (HealthDay News) -- Most children with perinatal HIV infection are achieving virologic suppression and have normal CD4 lymphocyte counts, according to a study published online March 9 in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.

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Mild Histological Injury After Allogenic Renal Transplant

MONDAY, May 2 (HealthDay News) -- Histological changes in the first five years after allogenic renal transplantation are generally mild, and are less severe than previously reported, according to a study published in the April issue of the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Incidence Increasing in U.K.

MONDAY, May 2 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis clinical syndrome (IPF-CS) in primary care and mortality from IPF-CS measured by registered deaths in the United Kingdom have increased significantly in the 21st century, according to a study published online April 27 in Thorax.

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Physician's Briefing
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