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October 2010 Briefing - Pathology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for October 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Green Tea Does Not Prevent Breast Cancer

FRIDAY, Oct. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Although animal and in vitro studies have shown green tea to be protective against breast cancer, a large prospective trial in Japan has found no such benefit; the findings have been published online Oct. 28 in Breast Cancer Research.

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Original Mutation to Pancreatic Cancer May Take 10 Years

THURSDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Genomic sequencing of metastatic pancreatic cancers along with mathematical modeling suggests that there is a 10- to 15-year time period in which to find and destroy malignant pancreatic cells before the cancer becomes advanced, according to research published online Oct. 27 in Nature.

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Coffee, Tea Consumption Linked to Lower Glioma Risk

THURSDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Coffee and tea consumption is associated with a lower risk of glioma, according to research published in the November issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Glucose Levels Veer Widely Leading Into Type 1 Diabetes

THURSDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- As individuals progress to type 1 diabetes, their glucose levels show wide fluctuations and gradually increase overall, though glucose fluctuations are not related to early C-peptide response, according to research published in the October issue of Diabetes.

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Air Pollution Associated With Diabetes Prevalence

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Increasing exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution may be one factor explaining the dramatic rise in diabetes prevalence over the past few decades, according to research published in the October issue of Diabetes Care.

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Lifestyle Score, Decision Aid Affect Colon Cancer Prevention

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Each additional healthy lifestyle behavior can decrease colorectal cancer risk by 11 percent, according to research published online Oct. 26 in BMJ. In another article in the same issue, a decision aid to help adults with low education levels make informed colorectal cancer screening decisions appears to cause more patients to avoid the screening entirely.

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2 mm Free Margin Minimizes Risk of Residual Disease

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- A free margin of 2 mm from the invasive tumor appears to be associated with a low risk of residual disease in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery, according to research published in the November issue of the International Journal of Clinical Practice.

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Colorectal Cancer Tumor Type Affects Cetuximab Response

TUESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with colorectal cancer who have the KRAS codon 13-mutated tumor type respond better to treatment with cetuximab than patients with other KRAS-mutated tumor types, according to a study in the Oct. 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Genetic Variants Spike Cardio Risk for Patients on Clopidogrel

TUESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals treated with clopidogrel for percutaneous coronary intervention who are carriers of reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles are more likely to suffer major cardiovascular events than patients without the genetic variants, according to research published in the Oct. 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Smoking in Midlife Linked to Later Dementia Risk

TUESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals who smoke heavily in midlife appear to have a higher risk of dementia -- including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia -- decades later, according to research published online Oct. 25 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Primary Care Trails Other Specialties in Hourly Wages

TUESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Primary care physicians have substantially lower hourly wages than other specialists, and although most physicians find Medicare reimbursement inequitable, they show little consensus on how to reform it, according to two studies published in the Oct. 25 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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In Healthy Adults, Narcolepsy Biomarker Predicts Poor Sleep

TUESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- In the absence of clinical narcolepsy, healthy people who are positive for the genetic narcolepsy marker allele DQB1*0602 have more fragmented sleep and respond poorly to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD), according to research published in the Oct. 26 issue of Neurology.

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Biomarkers May Help Predict Chronic Kidney Disease

MONDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- A panel including circulating homocysteine and several other biomarkers may help predict risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and microalbuminuria (MA), according to research published online Oct. 21 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Gene Regulation May Prevent Cardiac Hypertrophy

FRIDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Regulating expression of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) gene in heart muscle cells can reverse maladaptive heart remodeling, such as cardiac hypertrophy, caused by sustained pressure overloads, according to the results of a mouse study published online Oct. 20 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Bacteriuria Unrelated to Painful Bladder Syndrome Flares

FRIDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Episodes of bacteria in the urine (bacteriuria) do not seem to be related to symptoms of painful bladder syndrome (PBS) in women with interstitial cystitis (IC), according to a study in the October issue of Urology.

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ApoA-V Decreases Triglyceride Levels in Mouse Model

FRIDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- A minor lipoprotein-associated protein currently being studied in mice, and designated Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V), shows potential as a future treatment for humans with severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), according to research published online Oct. 21 in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

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Genetic Risk Score Identifies Heart Disease-Vulnerable

FRIDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- A genetic risk score based on 13 newly identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) appears to be associated with the risk of a coronary heart disease event, and slightly improves risk reclassification of participants whose traditional risk factors identify them as being at intermediate risk, according to research published in the Oct. 23 issue of The Lancet.

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Season of First Trimester Associated With Food Allergy

THURSDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Children who were at about 11 weeks gestational age during springtime allergy season may be at increased risk for sensitivity to food allergies, according to research published online Oct. 19 in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

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Neuro/Endothelial Effects of Sleep Apnea Coexist in Children

THURSDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Cognitive dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction usually coexist in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), raising the possibility of using the simple measurement of microvascular postischemic reperfusion of the forearm as a screen for cognitive defects as well, according to research published online Oct. 18 in Pediatrics.

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Mouse Study Links Proteins to Progressive Hearing Loss

THURSDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- The development of hair cell stereocilia needed for hearing can proceed normally in the absence of either β-actin or γ-actin proteins, but the lack of either protein results in progressive hearing loss with aging, according to a study in mice published Oct. 14 in PLoS Genetics.

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Many Types of Tumors Found to Express FSH Receptor

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The endothelial cells of blood vessels in a variety of types of tumors express the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, according to research published in the Oct. 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Less Than Half of Encephalitis Due to Infectious Diseases

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Less than one-half of encephalitis cases in England were found to be attributable to infectious diseases, with the cause of encephalitis unclear in more than one-third of patients with a poor prognosis, according to a study published online Oct. 18 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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More Node+ Breast Cancer, Higher Mortality After HRT

TUESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Postmenopausal estrogen-plus-progestin therapy not only results in an increased incidence of invasive breast cancers but also in more node-positive cancers and an increased mortality rate, according to an analysis published in the Oct. 20 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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DHA Supplements Don't Prevent Postpartum Depression

TUESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- The results of the large, multicenter DOMInO (DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome) trial do not support routine docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation for pregnant women to reduce depressive symptoms or to improve cognitive or language outcomes in early childhood, according to research published in the Oct. 20 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Vitamin D Levels Lower in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

TUESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), many of whom routinely protect themselves from the sun due to higher risk of skin cancer, appear to be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, according to research published in the October issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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Homocysteine, B12 Associated With Alzheimer's Risk

TUESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Serum levels of homocysteine (tHcy) and holotranscobalamin (holoTC) -- the active form of vitamin B12 -- may be useful in determining the risk of, and preventing, Alzheimer's disease (AD), with higher holoTC levels being a protective factor, according to research published in the Oct. 19 issue of Neurology.

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Researchers Identify Most Common HPV Types

MONDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Eight types of human papillomavirus (HPV) appear to be responsible for over 90 percent of the world's cervical cancer cases; researchers recommend these eight types be the target for future vaccines and that the three most common high-risk HPV types -- 16, 18, and 45 -- which occur in younger women, should be the focus of type-specific HPV screening. Their findings have been published online Oct. 18 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Baraclude Sanctioned for Severe Liver Disease

MONDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Bristol-Myers Squibb said Monday its liver drug Baraclude (entecavir) has received expanded approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat chronic hepatitis B in adults with decompensated liver disease, a form of severe liver damage.

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Soy Lowers Recurrence Rate in Some Types of Breast Cancer

MONDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Although concerns have been raised in recent years about the potential adverse effect of soy consumption on estrogen- and progesterone-receptor positive breast cancers, new research has shown a lower risk for recurrence of these cancers for women who consume high amounts of soy isoflavones; the study has been published online Oct. 18 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Hypertensive Black Children at Higher Risk Than Non-Blacks

MONDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- African-American children with primary hypertension have clinical characteristics that place them at higher risk of developing heart disease than non-African-American children, according to research published online Oct. 18 in Pediatrics.

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Prolonged Diarrhea Accounts for Substantial Disease Burden

FRIDAY, Oct. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea (ProD), lasting seven to 13 days, account for a substantial portion of the diarrhea burden in challenged populations and appear to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent persistent diarrhea and malnutrition, according to research published in the October issue of Gastroenterology.

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Bioavailable Testosterone Linked to Lower Alzheimer's Risk

THURSDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Higher levels of bioavailable testosterone may be protective against Alzheimer's disease in older men, according to research published online Aug. 6 in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.

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Pattern of MRI Findings Predicts Cognitive Decline

THURSDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have more cerebral microhemorrhages and an altered iron distribution on magnetic resonance imaging compared with controls, and analysis using a support vector machine (SVM) may identify patients with MCI at higher risk of cognitive decline, according to research published online Oct. 5 in Radiology.

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Brain Hemisphere Connectivity Differs for Males With Autism

THURSDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified differences in the way the hemispheres of the brain communicate with each other in males with autism compared with normally developing males, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in Cerebral Cortex.

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ANGPTL3 Mutations Tied to Lipid Disorder

THURSDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- ANGPTL3 mutations appear to be associated with extremely low plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels among individuals with familial combined hypolipidemia, which may represent a new target for the lowering of LDL cholesterol levels, according to a brief report published online Oct. 13 in The New England Journal of Medicine.

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Long-Distance Walking Ups Gray Matter Volume

THURSDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- In older adults, more physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume years later, which in turn is linked to a lower risk of cognitive impairment, according to research published online Oct. 13 in Neurology.

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CDC: In U.S., Hispanics Outlive General Population

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Hispanic individuals in the United States live an average 2.5 years longer than non-Hispanic white individuals and 7.7 years longer than non-Hispanic black individuals, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report United States Life Tables by Hispanic Origin, 2006, which was released today.

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Neonatal Jaundice Ups Risk of Infantile Autism

MONDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Neonatal jaundice appears to increase the risk of autism and other psychological development disorders, but only for a subset of term infants, according to research published online Oct. 11 in Pediatrics.

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Genetic Research Focuses on Waist-Hip Ratio, BMI

TUESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- New findings shed light on how genetics may influence body fat distribution and body mass index, as detailed in two studies published online Oct. 10 in Nature Genetics.

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Stem Cell Transplant May Help MS, ALS Patients

TUESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who received mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation in a recent phase 1/2 trial experienced stabilization and, in some cases, improvement; results of the trial are published in the October issue of the Archives of Neurology.

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Insulin Resistance Is Potential Marker for Ischemic Stroke

TUESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Insulin resistance (IR), as measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), appears to be independently associated with an increased risk of first ischemic stroke (IS) among patients without diabetes, potentially providing clinical practitioners with the ability to identify those at high risk of stroke, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in the Archives of Neurology.

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Collaboration Required for Better Testosterone Assays

MONDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Improving testosterone assays for better measurement of testosterone levels will require a multipronged approach involving all parties concerned with achieving this goal, according to a consensus statement published in the October issue of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

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43% of Orthopedic Patients Have Low Vitamin D Level

MONDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D within the adult orthopedic surgery population, according to research published in the Oct. 6 issue of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.

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Informant-Based Tool Is Good Screen for Alzheimer's

FRIDAY, Oct. 8 (HealthDay News) -- A brief informant-based dementia assessment can identify Alzheimer's disease better than more traditional methods and may be a lower-cost alternative for Alzheimer's screening, according to a report published online Sept. 7 in Brain.

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Usual Prostate Cancer Therapy Linked to Bone Deterioration

FRIDAY, Oct. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer is associated with bone deterioration, and a new technology may help identify men at risk for fractures related to this deterioration, according to a study published online Sept. 29 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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More Evidence Links Dense Breasts to Later Cancer

THURSDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and mammographically dense breasts may have an increased risk of subsequent breast cancer, particularly in the opposite breast, according to research published in the October issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Coronary Artery Disease Genetic Variants Identified

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- A meta-analysis of currently available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has confirmed the identification of genetic variants associated with myocardial infarction (MI) and other forms of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a proof-of-principle study published online Oct. 5 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.

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Age at Cancer Diagnosis Similar in AIDS, General Populations

TUESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- After adjustment for the lower proportion of older-age patients among the AIDS population, most cancers in this population are diagnosed at an age similar to that in the general population, according to research published in the Oct. 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Study Validates Noninvasive Blood Test for CAD

TUESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- A new blood test measuring gene expression can modestly increase the accuracy of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients without diabetes or known CAD, according to research published in the Oct. 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Impaired Kidney Function Linked to Future Stroke Risk

FRIDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- A low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with later risk of stroke, and even early stages of chronic kidney disease are associated with a higher risk of subsequent coronary heart disease, according to research published Sept. 30 in BMJ.

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Genetic Mutation Explains Some Male Infertility

FRIDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- A genetic mutation may explain sperm production failure in about 4 percent of infertile but otherwise healthy men, according to research published online Sept. 30 in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

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Dog Ownership Reduces Risk of Eczema in Dog-Sensitive Children

FRIDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Early household exposure to dogs in children who are dog-sensitized results in a four-fold decreased risk of eczema, but early exposure to cats in cat-sensitive children sharply increases the risk of eczema, according to a report published online Oct. 1 in the Journal of Pediatrics.

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