April 2008 Briefing - Pediatrics
Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for April 2008. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
One Quarter of U.S. Children Not Adequately Vaccinated
WEDNESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- More than one in four children in the United States are not in compliance with official vaccine recommendations, a figure that is higher than previous estimates that relied on counting vaccine doses alone, according to a report scheduled to be published in the June issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Rising Insurance Premiums Outpace Salary Increases
WEDNESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- The cost of family health insurance plans in the United States is increasing 10 times faster than salary increases, meaning that a growing share of workers' earnings are eaten up by health care costs, according to a report issued April 29 by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Physicians Lack Feedback on Accuracy of Diagnoses
TUESDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Clinical diagnosis is a largely open-loop system in which there is no systematic way for clinicians to obtain feedback on the outcome of their diagnoses, according to an article published in a supplement to the May issue of The American Journal of Medicine.
Increasing Incidence of Pre-Pregnancy Diabetes Alarming
TUESDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of gestational diabetes has remained stable over time and is similar across different racial and ethnic groups, but the rising number of young, pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes is cause for concern, according to a report published in the May issue of Diabetes Care.
Palliative Care Can Improve Patient Care Most, Poll Finds
MONDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- In an international poll conducted by BMJ to determine which area of health care would enable doctors to make the greatest difference to patients, palliative care for non-malignant disease received the most votes, the BMJ Group announced at the International Forum on Quality and Safety in Health Care in Paris this week.
Biofuels Partially to Blame in Global Food Crisis
FRIDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- The global food shortage, which threatens millions of people with starvation, is due to a number of factors, including the growing use of biofuels -- potential food crops that are used as fuel for car engines -- and requires that the international community address the root causes of the crisis, according to an editorial published in The Lancet in April.
Uptake of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine is High
FRIDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Uptake of the first two doses of the human papillomavirus vaccine among adolescent schoolgirls in Manchester, United Kingdom, was encouraging, but high coverage for the third dose will determine the overall success of the vaccination program, according to a study published online April 24 in the BMJ.
Researchers Present Updated Discussion of Avian Flu
FRIDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Because H5N1 influenza A viruses have the potential to cause a worldwide pandemic with mortality rates as high as 60 percent, the development of broadly protective vaccines is imperative, according to a seminar published in the April 26 issue of The Lancet.
Wide Variations in Health Care Seen Across Europe
FRIDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- The wide diversity of health care provision in European countries makes any regionwide legislation mandating a unified approach unfeasible, and quality of care across countries will likely be ensured through more informal mechanisms, according to an article published in the April 26 issue of the BMJ.
Skim Milk Linked to Acne in Teenage Boys
WEDNESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- In teenage boys, high consumption of skim milk is positively associated with acne, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.
Airway Endoscopy Best for Diagnosing Cause of Stridor
WEDNESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- In diagnosing the cause of stridor, a high-pitched breathing sound, in children, airway fluoroscopy has high specificity but low sensitivity when compared with airway endoscopy, according to a study in the April issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery.
Latest Flu Vaccine Gave Poor Protection, CDC Says
WEDNESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccine had limited efficacy during the last flu season, uptake of the rotavirus vaccine is encouraging and researchers who have contact with a virus related to smallpox should be vaccinated, according to three articles in the April 18 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Insulin Resistance Differs Among Teenage Boys and Girls
TUESDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Insulin resistance develops differently in boys and girls as they transition from late childhood through adolescence, according to a study published online April 21 in Circulation.
Heart Screening Needed in Kids With Attention Deficit
TUESDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should undergo cardiovascular screening prior to being started on stimulant medications such as Ritalin and Adderall, according to an American Heart Association Scientific Statement published online April 21 in Circulation.
Causes and Mechanism of Chronic Cough Explored
MONDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic cough, defined as a cough lasting eight weeks or longer, is common in the community and can be caused by environmental exposures to such things as cigarette smoke and pollution as well as by a number of common and rare diseases, according to an article published April 19 in The Lancet.
CDC Reports Declining Birth Rate for Women Under 25
FRIDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- The proportion of pregnancies among U.S. women under the age of 25 has declined during the period from 1990 to 2004, according to a report prepared by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.
No Change in U.S. Rates of Foodborne Illness
THURSDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence rates for various foodborne illnesses have stabilized after a period of decline, according to a report published in the April 11 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Factors Predict Survival in Extreme Prematurity
WEDNESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- The decision to administer intensive care to an extremely premature infant is often based on gestational age alone, but factors such as birth weight, sex and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids also impact prognosis and should be taken into consideration, researchers report in the April 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Drug Resistance Threatens Gonorrhea Control
TUESDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- The emerging resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to multiple antimicrobial agents is a major public health challenge, and heightened surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns and improved screening practices are necessary for adequate prevention and control of gonorrhea, according to an article published in the April 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Younger Women More Vulnerable to Postpartum Depression
TUESDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- As many as one-fifth of new mothers experience postpartum depression, according to a study published in the April 11 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Photoscreening for Amblyopia Should Be Done Early
MONDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Photoscreening infants and toddlers for amblyopia results in better visual outcomes after treatment compared with later screening of preschoolers, reports an article published in the Archives of Ophthalmology in April.
Prenatal Ultrasound Limited in Congenital Cytomegalovirus
MONDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- In women who contract primary cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy, ultrasound predicts whether their infants will have symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus in only one-third of cases, according to research published in the April issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Individualized Health Care Budgets Improve Care
FRIDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- The U.K.'s National Health Service (NHS) should allow patients individual control of their health care budgets, an approach that has been shown in pilot studies to improve outcomes and patient satisfaction in a cost-effective manner, according to an analysis published April 12 in BMJ.
Child, Maternal Mortality Not Improving in Poorest Nations
FRIDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Despite some positive signs, progress towards meeting Millennium Development Goals for reducing maternal and child mortality in the world's poorest countries is inadequate, according to the Countdown report and other articles in a special edition of The Lancet published April 12.
Maternal Smoking Linked to Congenital Heart Defects
THURSDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Women who smoke in the month before they become pregnant or at any time up to the end of the first trimester are more likely than their non-smoking counterparts to give birth to a baby with congenital heart defects, according to the results of a study funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and published in the April issue of Pediatrics.
Media Coverage Did Not Affect Vaccination Uptake
THURSDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- The mainstream news media reporting of academic publications suggesting a link between the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autism did not result in a significant drop in uptake of the vaccination. Rather, this temporary drop occurred before the media coverage began, according to a report published in the April 1 issue of Pediatrics.
Consider Health Literacy Level When Writing for Patients
THURSDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Giving patients clearly written educational materials that convey key messages without resorting to jargon is an important part of engaging patient compliance with treatment and can contribute to health literacy, according to an article published in the April issue of Chest.
Genetic Links to Childhood Heart Hypertrophy Uncovered
WEDNESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Gene mutations may underlie half of all cases of sporadic childhood-onset idiopathic cardiac hypertrophy, and two-thirds of cases in which there is a positive family history, according to study findings published online April 9 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Most Mumps Cases Occurred in Immunized Young Adults
WEDNESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Despite high national coverage rates with two doses of mumps vaccine, the largest outbreak of mumps in two decades occurred in 2006, suggesting that changes to the mumps vaccine or vaccine policy may be needed to avert future outbreaks, researchers report in the April 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Susceptibility Gene for Asthma Identified
WEDNESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified a gene conferring susceptibility to asthma in populations of European descent, according to research published online April 9 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Paternal Obesity Linked to Liver Injury
WEDNESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Early-onset paternal, but not maternal, obesity is associated with a higher risk of having high levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker of liver injury associated with obesity, researchers report in the April issue of Gastroenterology.
Doctors Vote on the Ways to Make Biggest Difference
WEDNESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- The BMJ has begun accepting votes on which areas of health care allow doctors to make the biggest difference to patient care, with a shortlist of six areas each being championed by eminent doctors and researchers. The winning topic will gain special coverage in the BMJ and the BMJ Group's 24 other specialist journals and online education products.
Children's Sleep Disruptions Lead to Range of Problems
WEDNESDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Short or disrupted sleep during infancy and childhood may be associated with a range of problems including mood and behavioral disorders in young adulthood, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as maladaptive parental behaviors, according to three studies published in the April issue of the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.
Childhood Abuse May Raise Adult Inflammation Levels
TUESDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Depressed adults with a history of maltreatment in childhood tend to have higher levels of C-reactive protein than their counterparts without a history of abuse, putting them at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, according to a report published in the April issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.
Iron Deficiency in U.S. Toddlers Static Since 1976
TUESDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Since 1976, the overall prevalence of iron deficiency in U.S. toddlers has not declined and continues to be elevated in certain high-risk groups including Hispanic and overweight toddlers, according to an article published in the April issue of the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.
Genetic Influence on Fears Changes Over Time
TUESDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic and environmental factors both have an impact on fears in middle childhood and early adulthood but they act in a dynamic way and change over time, according to a report published in the April issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.
Short Sleep in Infancy Linked to Childhood Overweight
TUESDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Infants who sleep less than 12 hours per day may have an increased risk of becoming overweight when they reach preschool age, according to research published in the April issue of the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.
Over 90,000 U.S. Infants Non-Fatally Mistreated Annually
MONDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- From October 2005 through September 2006, approximately 905,000 U.S. children, nearly 20 percent of whom were younger than 1 year of age, were victims of maltreatment, according to a report published in the April 4 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Child Gymnasts at High Risk for Injury
MONDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Gymnastics has one of the highest injury rates of all girls' sports, accounting for an average 26,600 hospital emergency department treatments a year in children, according to an article published in the April issue of Pediatrics.
Bedroom Television Bad Influence on Teens
MONDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Older adolescents who have a television in their bedroom are less physically active, have fewer family meals and a poorer diet compared to their counterparts without a bedroom television, according to a report published in the April issue of Pediatrics.
Early Psychological Distress Affects Middle-Aged Workers
MONDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- People who experience psychological distress in childhood and early adulthood may be more likely to experience adverse working conditions during middle age, according to the results of a study published online April 3 in Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Rotavirus Vaccine Effective in Latin American Infants
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- In Latin American infants, oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine provides significant protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis up to age 2, according to the results of a study published in the April 5 issue of The Lancet.
Fetal DNA Testing May Avert Treatment for Blood Disorder
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Using high throughput RHD genotyping of fetuses may obviate the need for anti-RhD immunoglobulin in RhD-negative pregnant women, according to research published April 3 in BMJ Online First.
Obesity Reduces Ability to Oxidize Fat During Exercise
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Among pubertal boys, those who are obese have a reduced ability to oxidize fat during moderate exercise compared to those who are lean, possibly because of differences in muscle fiber distribution, according to a report published online April 2 in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.
Childhood Cancer Survivors Need Risk-Based Follow-Up
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Survivors of childhood cancer often experience late effects of their treatment, but not all patients need to be recalled to a cancer clinic for follow-up, according to an editorial published in the April 5 issue of BMJ.
Local Research, Production Can Boost Global Vaccine Use
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Lack of access to vaccines in low- and middle-income countries causes over 2 million avoidable deaths a year, according to an article published in the April 5 issue of BMJ.
Second Rotavirus Vaccine Gets FDA Approval
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted approval to Rotarix, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals of Rixensart, Belgium, making it the second oral vaccine against rotavirus on the market in the United States, along with Merck's RotaTeq.
Prematurity, Income Loss Studied in Relation to Autism
FRIDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- A sample of toddlers who were born extremely prematurely had a high prevalence of autism spectrum behaviors, and families of children with autism tend to face a substantial loss of household income, according to two studies published in the April 1 issue of Pediatrics.
Benefit of Lung Transplant for Cystic Fibrosis Affirmed
THURSDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- Lung transplantation should continue to be offered as a treatment option for children with cystic fibrosis, the authors of an article published in the March issue of Pediatric Transplantation maintain, directly challenging another recent study that questions the benefit of lung transplantation in this population.
Neighborhood Affects Child's Risk of Serious Injury
THURSDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- In England, rates of serious injury are significantly higher among children from the poorest neighborhoods than they are among children from the most affluent neighborhoods, and injury patterns also vary between children living in rural and urban settings, according to a report published online April 1 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.
Practices Vary Among Cell Transplant Physicians
THURSDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- Transplant practices vary worldwide among both pediatric and adult hematopoietic cell transplantation physicians, suggesting the need for clinical trials or observational data to guide the best practice, according to the results of a study published online March 31 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
FDA: Safety Warning Issued for Influenza Drug Relenza
THURSDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- The maker of the antiviral drug Relenza (zanamivir) informed health care professionals this week of a potential risk of behavioral changes and delirium associated with the drug's use. Relenza is approved for the treatment of influenza A and B.
Child Well-Being Measures Vary Dramatically by State
THURSDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- Across the United States, the location where a child is born and raised can make a huge difference in the child's health and well-being, according to a report released on April 2 by the non-profit Every Child Matters Education Fund.
Obese Teens Improve Cardiac Function After Weight Loss
WEDNESDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- Obese adolescents who lose large amounts of weight due to bariatric surgery have better cardiac function and geometry, researchers report in the April 8 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Pediatric Liver Transplantation Affects Patients and Families
WEDNESDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- After pediatric liver transplantation, children aged 5 and over have compromised physical function and their parents have higher levels of stress. Although transplant families do not generally appear to have a higher level of family dysfunction, this may not be true for all demographic groups, according to a report published in the April issue of Liver Transplantation.