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April 2013 Briefing - Pediatrics

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for April 2013. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Outcomes Often Good for Extremely Premature Infants

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- About three-quarters of infants born extremely prematurely who receive active care have mild or no neurodevelopmental disability at 2.5 years of age, according to a study published in the May 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on child health.

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Optimal Vitamin D Dosage for Infants Remains Uncertain

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Supplementing healthy, term, breastfed newborns with 1,600 international units (IU) of vitamin D daily raises plasma levels to the higher target level recommended by some pediatric societies after three months, while lower dosages can raise plasma levels to the lower target level recommended by the Institute of Medicine, according to a study published in the May 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on child health.

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FDA Concerned Caffeinated Foods Could Harm Children

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- On the heels of the introduction of a new chewing gum containing as much caffeine as half a cup of coffee, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is taking a closer look at the impact of caffeinated products on children's health.

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Non-Inferior Response With Two-Dose HPV Vaccine

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- For girls receiving two versus three doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, antibody responses to HPV-16 and HPV-18 are non-inferior one month after the last dose, according to a study published in the May 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on child health.

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Virological Failure Up With Nevirapine in HIV-Infected Youth

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- For children with HIV infection in Botswana, treatment with nevirapine is associated with increased rates of virological failure compared with efavirenz, according to a study published in the May 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on child health.

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No Evidence of Lyme Disease in Children With Autism

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- A small study of 120 children appears to show that children with autism have no serological evidence of Lyme disease, according to a research letter published in the May 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on child health.

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Renewed Efforts From AAFP to Repeal OTC Provision in ACA

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Members of the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and other medical associations are urging further consideration of Section 9003 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) that requires holders of tax-preferred health care accounts to obtain a physician's prescription to use funds from those accounts to pay for over-the-counter (OTC) medications. The concerns have been laid out in a letter to the chair and the ranking member of the House Committee on Ways and Means.

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Social Network Interests Can Predict Obesity Prevalence

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Online social interests can predict the prevalence of obesity in a given geographical area, according to a study published online April 24 in PLOS ONE.

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Risk Factors ID'd for Scoliosis Surgery Complications

TUESDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Increases in the upper thoracic scoliotic curve, thoracic kyphosis, and number of rod-lengthening procedures are risk factors for postoperative complications associated with growing-rod (GR) surgery for early-onset scoliosis (EOS), according to a study published in the April 15 issue of Spine.

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USPSTF Recommends Universal HIV Screening From Age 15 to 65

MONDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening all 15- to 65-year olds, younger and older at-risk individuals, and all pregnant women for HIV, according to a Recommendation Statement published in the April 30 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Standardized Debriefing Ups Outcomes on CPR Simulation

MONDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a standardized debriefing script during resuscitation training programs conducted by novice instructors is associated with improved acquisition of knowledge and team leader behavioral performance in subsequent simulated cardiopulmonary arrests, according to a study published online April 22 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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FDA Announces New Network to Focus Exclusively on Patients

MONDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced the launch of a new interactive tool for educating patients, their advocates, and consumers about the processes involved in medication development.

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Med Errors Common Among Pediatric Cancer Outpatients

MONDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Among pediatric cancer patients who receive medications at home, errors are common, with a rate of 3.6 errors with injury per 100 patients, according to a study published online April 29 in Pediatrics.

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Child Fruit Consumption Up With Pre-Slicing in Schools

MONDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Schools that use fruit slicers to pre-slice fruit report increased fruit sales, more fruit eaten, and less fruit wasted, according to a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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AAP Issues Guidelines for Care of Infants Born at Home

MONDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Every newborn infant, including those born at home, is entitled to appropriate care, according to a policy statement issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and published online April 29 in Pediatrics.

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Medical Interns Spending Less Time With Patients

FRIDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Medical interns are spending less time with patients and more time at a computer since new rules limiting total work hours were instituted in 2011, according to a study published online April 18 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Saturday Marks Sixth Annual Rx Drug Take-Back Day

FRIDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- United States residents across the nation will have an opportunity to safely and anonymously unload expired, unwanted prescription medications on Saturday, April 27, during the sixth annual National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day.

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Smoking Water Pipes Is Not a Safe Cigarette Alternative

FRIDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking tobacco in water pipes is associated with a different pattern of carcinogen exposure than smoking cigarettes, according to a study published online March 5 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Risk of Delay in Response to Patient E-Mails Up Over Weekend

THURSDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of delays in opening and responding to primary care patient e-mail communication is significantly worse at the weekends, according to a study published in the April/June issue of Quality Management in Health Care.

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Physicians Less Empathetic in Talking to Heavy Patients

THURSDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Primary care physicians (PCPs) are less likely to bond with overweight and obese patients, according to research published online March 20 in Obesity.

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Teens Targeting Strength, Cardio Fitness Battle Insulin Resistance

THURSDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Lower levels of abdominal muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth are independently associated with adverse levels of fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function in young adulthood, according to a study published online April 11 in Diabetes Care.

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Teen Residence in Stroke Belt Linked to Risk of Stroke

WEDNESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Living in the stroke belt during adolescence is linked with an increased risk of incident stroke, according to a study published online April 24 in Neurology.

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Impact of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis Lasts Into Adulthood

WEDNESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Bacterial meningitis in childhood has lasting effects, often leading to lower educational attainment and economic self-sufficiency in adulthood, according to a study published in the April 24 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Diagnostic Errors Are the Leading Type of Malpractice Claim

WEDNESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- In the past 25 years, diagnostic errors have been the leading type of malpractice claim and account for the highest proportion of total payments, according to a study published online April 22 in BMJ Quality & Safety.

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Asthma Health Care Access Worse for Young Adults

WEDNESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Young adults with asthma have worse health care access and utilization compared with adolescents with asthma, according to a study published online April 22 in Pediatrics.

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>40 Percent of Parents Give Cough Meds to Young Children

TUESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- More than 40 percent of parents with children younger than 4 years of age give them cough medicine or multi-symptom cough and cold medicine, despite warning labels that products should not be used for young children, according to a report published by the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital.

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Maternal Use of Valproate Ups Risk of Autism in Offspring

TUESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal exposure to valproate correlates with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder and childhood autism in offspring, according to a study published in the April 24 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Firearms Account for About 2 Percent of Child Injuries

TUESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- In level 1 trauma centers in Denver and Aurora, Colo., about 2 percent of pediatric injuries result from firearms, according to a research letter published in the April 24 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Pediatric HIV Antiretroviral Treatment Cardioprotective

TUESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have better cardiac function than untreated children, according to a study published online April 22 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Parental Permissiveness Linked to Rx Drug Abuse, Misuse

TUESDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly one-quarter of teenagers misuse or abuse a prescription drug at least once in their lifetime, with perceived parental permissiveness linked to misuse and abuse of prescription drugs as well as use of alcohol and marijuana, according to a report published online April 23 by The Partnership at Drugfree.org.

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Food-Tied Parenting Practices Common in Parents of Teens

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- The use of controlling food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, are common among parents of adolescents and vary according to weight status, according to a study published in online April 22 in Pediatrics.

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USPSTF: Primary Care Screening Can Help ID Suicide Risk

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force finds that primary care screening tools could probably identify adults at increased risk of suicide, although they have limited efficacy in adolescents. This Recommendation Statement is based on an evidence review published in the April 23 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Draft Recommendation Statement
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One-Year Survival Up for Critical Congenital Heart Defects

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- For infants with critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs), one-year survival has improved over time, with an increased risk of mortality associated with earlier diagnosis, low birth weight, and maternal age, according to a study published online April 22 in Pediatrics.

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Dangers of the 'Cinnamon Challenge' Need Emphasis

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- With the increasing popularity of the "Cinnamon Challenge," especially among adolescents, the potential dangers need to be emphasized, according to a perspective piece published online April 22 in Pediatrics.

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HPV Exposure in Family, School Linked to Wart Development

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- For schoolchildren, exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV)-causing warts in the family and school class is associated with an increased risk of wart development, according to a study published online April 22 in Pediatrics.

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Teen Type 1 Diabetes Outcomes Up With Internet Interventions

MONDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Internet-based psycho-educational programs are beneficial for young patients with type 1 diabetes as they transition into adolescence, according to a study published online April 11 in Diabetes Care.

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CDC: About 20,000 Cases of Foodborne Infection in 2012

FRIDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- There were about 20,000 cases of foodborne infection in 2012, with the highest incidence among young children and the greatest proportion of hospitalizations and deaths among the elderly, according to research published in the April 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Patient-Centered Decision Making Ups Health Outcomes

FRIDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Patient-centered decision making (PCDM) is associated with improved health care outcomes, according to a study published in the April 16 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Accuracy of Smartphone Apps for Melanoma Risk Is Variable

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- The diagnostic accuracy of smartphone applications that analyze photos of pigmented skin lesions for melanoma risk is highly variable and incorrectly classifies about a third of melanomas as benign, according to a study published in the April issue of JAMA Dermatology.

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English-Acculturated Hispanics Report Less Sun-Safe Behavior

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- English-acculturated and bicultural (high English and Spanish acculturation) Hispanic adults report lower engagement in skin cancer-related behaviors, according to a study published online April 17 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Relative Proportion of MRSA Increasing in S. aureus Isolates

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- The relative proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing in S. aureus isolates, and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics, according to a study published in the April issue of JAMA Dermatology.

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Essay Questions Conventional Etiology of Obesity

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- To progress in the fight against obesity it is necessary to accept that there may be alternative hypotheses underlying its etiology and be prepared to invest the necessary time and resources to understand the underlying causes, according to an essay published online April 16 in BMJ.

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Guidelines Issued Relating to Online Medical Professionalism

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians should be aware of the benefits on online media and should recognize the implications for patient confidentiality and public perception, according to a position paper published in the April 16 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Family-Centered Teaching Rounds Good for Patients, Students

THURSDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Teaching and conducting rounds in the presence of patients and their families can be beneficial for patients and learners, according to research published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Women's Hostile Attributions Up Odds of Child Maltreatment

WEDNESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women's hostile attributions about infants correlate with an increased risk of early child maltreatment and harsh parenting, according to a study published online April 15 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Community Benefit Spending Varies for Tax-Exempt Hospitals

WEDNESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable variation in the level of community benefit expenditure by tax-exempt hospitals, according to a study published in the April 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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U.S. Infant Mortality Rates Down From 2005 Through 2011

WEDNESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Infant mortality rates in the United States decreased from 2005 through 2011, according to an April data brief issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Presenting Fee Data to Docs Cuts Number of Tests Ordered

WEDNESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Presenting fee data to providers at the time of laboratory test orders is associated with a small reduction in the number of tests ordered, according to a study published online April 15 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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~60 Percent of Peds Hospitals Have Electronic Health Records

WEDNESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Since 2008 there has been an increase in the proportion of children's hospitals adopting electronic health records (EHRs), with EHRs in almost 60 percent of children's hospitals in 2011, according to research published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Migraines in Children Linked to Infantile Colic

TUESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Children with migraine headaches are more likely to have a history of infantile colic, according to a study published in the April 17 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Some Triggered Fainting May Be Inherited

TUESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Some inherited cases of vasovagal syncope, or fainting caused by particular triggers, are linked to a particular region of chromosome 15q26, according to a study in the April 16 issue of Neurology.

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Longer Breastfeeding Duration Boosts Risk of Iron Deficiency

TUESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Longer breastfeeding duration is associated with increased odds of iron deficiency in healthy children, according to a study published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Music Aids Preemie Physiologic, Developmental Function

TUESDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- For premature infants, exposure to live music and parent-preferred lullabies can influence physiologic and developmental function, according to a study published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Pediatric Melanomas Are Increasing 2 Percent a Year

MONDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of pediatric melanoma has increased by about 2 percent per year, and this incidence trend is influenced by gender, age, and stage at diagnosis, primary site, and ultraviolet (UV)-B exposure, according to research published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Full-Term Gestational Age Tied to Development at 12 Months

MONDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- For healthy full-term infants, development at age 12 months is associated with gestational age, with scores increasing for each additional week of gestation, according to a study published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Social Networks Affect Parents' Vaccination Decision-Making

MONDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Social networks play a role in parents' vaccination decision-making, according to a study published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Quality Improvement Methods Up Appropriate Antibiotic Rx

MONDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Quality improvement (QI) methods can be used to rapidly implement national guidelines relating to appropriate first-line antibiotic therapy for children aged 3 months or older with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), according to a study published online April 15 in Pediatrics.

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Most ED Docs, Nurses Doubtful About Suicide Preventability

FRIDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Less than half of emergency department (ED) physicians and nurses believe that most or all suicides are preventable, and most do not assess suicidal patients for firearm access unless the patient has a suicide plan involving a firearm, according to a study published online March 14 in Depression and Anxiety.

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Speech Details Practices to Improve U.S. Health Systems

THURSDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- There are specific steps health care providers and policymakers should take to create high-quality, patient-centered care at lower costs, according to remarks made in an April 9 speech to the National Press Club.

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ACS: Room for Improvement in Cancer Prevention, Detection

THURSDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Despite improvements in aspects of cancer prevention and early detection, more systematic efforts to reduce tobacco use and obesity, and expand the use of screening tests could prevent much of the suffering and death of cancer, according to a report published online April 11 by the American Cancer Society.

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Teens With Gynecomastia Have Lower Psychosocial Well-Being

WEDNESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescent males with gynecomastia have lower psychosocial well-being than their unaffected peers, according to a study published in the April issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

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Sleep Apnea Tied to Behavioral, Attention Problems in Youths

WEDNESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Children with sleep apnea are at higher risk for behavioral, adaptive, and learning problems, according to a study published April 1 in SLEEP.

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Parenting Magazines Give Little Attention to Sun Protection

WEDNESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Two popular U.S. parenting magazines give little attention in terms of articles or advertisements to preventing skin cancer risk, according to a study published in the April issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Preventing Chronic Disease.

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Collaborative Program Can Cut Early-Term Deliveries

WEDNESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- A multistate collaborative process improvement program can reduce the rate of elective scheduled singleton early-term deliveries, according to a study published online April 5 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Delayed Allergy Reactions Seen With Pediatric Meat Consumption

MONDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody specific for galactose-α1,3-galactose (α-Gal), which is associated with delayed anaphylaxis and urticaria that occurs several hours after eating beef, pork, or lamb, has been identified in children reporting idiopathic anaphylaxis or urticaria, according to a study published online April 8 in Pediatrics.

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Eating Frequency, Body Weight Are Inversely Linked for Youths

MONDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- For children and adolescents, there is an inverse association between eating frequency and body weight status, which is evident only in boys when stratified by sex, according to a meta-analysis published online April 8 in Pediatrics.

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For Teens, Attention to TV Is Linked to Increased BMI Scores

MONDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents, the attention paid to television is positively associated with increased body mass index (BMI), according to a study published online April 8 in Pediatrics.

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Growth Hormone Ups Height in Pediatric Dialysis Patients

FRIDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- For pediatric dialysis patients, growth hormone (GH) therapy is associated with an increased rate of bone formation and results in greater increases in height, according to research published online April 4 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Diabetes-Linked Autoantibodies May Alter Children's Gut Microbes

FRIDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Children with diabetes-associated autoantibodies have alterations in the gut microbiome, according to a study published in the April issue of Diabetes.

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Disparities in Blood Lead Levels Persist Among U.S. Children

FRIDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Despite progress in reducing blood lead levels (BLLs) among children aged 1 to 5 years, disparities in those levels persist among different racial/ethnic and income groups, according to research published April 5 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Timing, Duration of Obesity Impact Adult Diabetes Risk

THURSDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- The likelihood of diabetes in young adulthood is increased for those who are obese as adolescents and those with persistent obesity, compared to those with adult-onset obesity, according to a study published in the April issue of Diabetes Care.

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All Hospital Emergency Rooms Should Be Prepared for Children

THURSDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- All hospital emergency departments (EDs), including community hospital EDs, should have the appropriate medications, equipment, policies, and staff to provide effective emergency care for children, according to a policy statement published in the March issue of the Journal of Emergency Nursing.

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More Research Is Needed on Use of Prebiotics in Infants

THURSDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- There is some evidence that supplementation with a prebiotic may prevent eczema in formula-fed infants, but more research is needed before routine use of prebiotics can be recommended, according to a review published online March 28 in The Cochrane Library.

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Study Examines Timing of Sexual Activity in U.S. Teens

TUESDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- For the youngest teenagers, sexual activity and pregnancy are rare, but most older teens are sexually active, according to a study published online April 1 in Pediatrics.

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U.S. Adolescents Are in Poor Heart Health, Survey Finds

TUESDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents in the United States are in poor cardiovascular health, with poor diets and insufficient physical activity, according to a study published online April 1 in Circulation.

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Varicella Vaccine Is Effective, Lasting Over 14-Year Period

MONDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- Varicella vaccination is effective for preventing varicella, with effectiveness lasting over a 14-year period, according to a study published online April 1 in Pediatrics.

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Most Partners of U.S. Docs Satisfied in Their Relationships

MONDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- Most spouses/partners of U.S. physicians report being satisfied with their relationships, with satisfaction linked to time spent together each day, according to research published in the March issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Disease Label May Foster Over-Treatment of Infant Ills

MONDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- Labeling an infant's spitting up as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) makes parents more interested in utilizing medication even when they are told the treatment is likely to be ineffective, according to a study published online April 1 in Pediatrics.

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More Evidence Supports Parent Behavior Training for ADHD

MONDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- There is greater evidence documenting the effectiveness of parent behavior training (PBT) than the use of methylphenidate for the treatment of young children at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a review published online April 1 in Pediatrics.

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AAP Updates Medicaid Policy Statement With ACA Changes

MONDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- The implications of the expansion of Medicaid resulting from implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on children are discussed in a policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published online April 4 in Pediatrics.

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Physician's Briefing