August 2006 Briefing - Pediatrics

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for August 2006. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Daily Moist Cough Most Useful for Determining Cough Cause

THURSDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Children who have a chronic moist cough provide clinicians with the best clues for diagnosing the cause of the cough, researchers report in the August issue of Thorax.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Bleomycin Tattooing Is Promising Scar Treatment

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- In the treatment of patients with large keloids and hypertrophic scars, bleomycin tattooing may produce better results than standard cryotherapy with intralesional triamcinolon injection, according to a study published in the August issue of Dermatologic Surgery.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Nursing Infants Absorb More Soy Isoflavones Than Moms

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Isoflavones are more readily bioavailable to infants via tofu or breast milk than to their mothers, researchers report in the August issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Gene Linked to Preterm Birth in African Americans

TUESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- A specific polymorphism in the SERPINH1 gene is found more often in people of African ancestry and is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in expectant mothers, according to a report published online Aug. 28 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

Abstract
Full Text

Mortality Decreasing in Adolescents with Anorexia

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Among Swedish adolescents who are hospitalized for anorexia nervosa, mortality has significantly decreased since the late 1970s, according to a brief report published in the August issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Guidelines for Teen Cholesterol Levels Refined

MONDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Guidelines for normal cholesterol levels for adolescents should take into account gender differences and natural fluctuations that occur through the growth process, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Over-the-Counter Sales of Plan B Approved

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced on Aug. 24 that it has approved over-the-counter sales of the emergency contraceptive Plan B, also known as the "morning-after pill," to women ages 18 and older. But Plan B will continue to be a prescription-only product for women ages 17 and under.

More Information

Childhood Allergies More Prevalent Worldwide

FRIDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of childhood allergies has increased worldwide since 1991, especially in children ages 6 to 7, according to a study published in the Aug. 26 issue of The Lancet.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Radiation for Childhood Leukemia Can Affect Cognition

THURSDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- High dose methotrexate is better than cranial radiation therapy for treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with respect to long-term neurocognitive outcomes, according to a report in the Aug. 20 Journal of Clinical Oncology. Radiation may be detrimental to brain development, the authors say.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Gene Identified for Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Mutations in the gene that codes for the Dok-7 protein, which normally helps form neuromuscular synapses, are partly responsible for the development of congenital myasthenic syndromes with proximal muscle weakness, according to a report published online Aug. 17 in Science.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Parents Can Promote Sun-Safe Behaviors in Children

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Parents can play an important role in promoting sun-safe behaviors and reducing sunburn frequency and severity in their children when there is a good parent-child relationship and low levels of negative communication, according to a study in the August issue of Archives of Dermatology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Snoring Associated With Nocturnal Enuresis in Children

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Children who snore more than three nights per week are nearly four times as likely to have nocturnal enuresis as those who do not habitually snore, according to a study published in the August issue of Urology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

U.S. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Decreasing

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- The seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the primary cause of genital herpes, has significantly declined since the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United States, especially among teenagers, according to a study in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Metabolic Disorder More Common Than Thought

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is a more common metabolic disorder than previously recognized, but is not currently suitable for inclusion in newborn screening programs, according to a study in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial

Insulin Resistance at 13 May Predict Future Heart Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Reducing insulin resistance in teens, along with their weight, may be necessary to decrease their risk of cardiovascular disease, according to the results of a study published online Aug. 21 in Hypertension.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Lipid Levels Rise More Than Thought After Acne Treatment

MONDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- About 40 percent of patients taking isotretinoin to treat acne develop elevated triglycerides and about 30 percent develop high cholesterol, higher than previous estimates but transient and reversible in most cases, according to a study in the August issue of Archives of Dermatology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial

Brain Abnormality Found in Children With Autism

MONDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Children with autism have prolonged T2 relaxation in their cortical gray matter compared with other children, an abnormal finding that may be specific to autism, according to a report in the Aug. 22 issue of Neurology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Childhood Cancer Survivors at Risk for Suicide Ideation

MONDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Suicidal ideation and attempts occur in a significant minority of adult childhood cancer survivors, and are related to both treatment type and post-treatment mental and physical health, according to a report in the Aug. 20 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Bortezomib Can Inhibit Neuroblastoma Cell Growth

MONDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Bortezomib (Velcade), a proteasome inhibitor used to treat several adult cancers, inhibits pediatric neuroblastoma cell growth and proliferation in animal models and in human cells studied in vitro, according to a report published in the Aug. 16 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

All Forms of Tobacco Raise Myocardial Infarction Risk

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- All forms of tobacco consumption, not just smoking, substantially raise the risk of myocardial infarction, according to the results of a global study published in the Aug. 19 issue of The Lancet.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial

Watching TV Has Analgesic Effect in Children

FRIDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Watching TV is a better analgesic for children undergoing venipuncture than active distraction by mothers, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Americans Support Better Coordination of Health Care

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Survey results suggest that Americans strongly support better coordination of health care and that rising medical costs are a serious concern for many low- and middle-income people. The survey, conducted on behalf of The Commonwealth Fund, also found that many people support fundamental changes or a complete rebuilding of the health care system.

More Information

Link Between Smoking While Pregnant and Overweight Kids

THURSDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Mothers who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have overweight or obese children than mothers who do not smoke during pregnancy, according to a new longitudinal analysis in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Most ED Patients with S. Aureus Infection Have MRSA

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, is the most common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections in patients presenting to emergency departments in 11 U.S. cities, according to a study conducted in August 2004 and reported in the Aug. 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial

Neonatal MRI May Predict Outcomes in Preterm Infants

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help predict adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in very preterm infants, according to a study in the Aug. 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial

Mutation Linked to Therapy Response in Leukemia Patients

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) who have activating NOTCH1 mutations are likely to respond well to prednisone treatment, according to a report in the Aug. 15 issue of Blood.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Doctors' Views on Disclosure of Errors Varies Widely

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- There is a wide variation across the medical profession when it comes to disclosing medical errors to patients, with the visibility of the error and medical specialty both playing a role, according to two studies in the August 14/28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Effect of Financial Incentives on Quality of Care Unclear

TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Studies examining the effect of financial incentives on quality of health care have shown mixed results, and ongoing monitoring of these programs is essential to determine their effectiveness, according to a report in the Aug. 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text

AHA Issues Statement on Physical Activity in Schools

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Schools must take the lead in promoting adequate physical activity for children during the school day, according to a scientific statement published online Aug. 14 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Drug Errors Not Uncommon in Pediatric Leukemia Therapy

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Medication errors may affect the course of chemotherapy treatment in nearly one in five children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), according to a study published online Aug. 14 in Cancer.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Fetal Pulmonary Artery Diameter Predicts Morbidity

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Antenatal pulmonary artery diameter measurements may be useful as predictors of respiratory morbidity in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), according to a study in the August issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Hib Vaccine Cuts Childhood Disease in Kenya

MONDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine into the routine infant immunization program in Kenya has dramatically reduced disease incidence in young children, according to a report in the Aug. 9 Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Fewer U.S. Students Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of sexual experience dropped to 46.8 percent from 54.1 percent among U.S. high school students between 1991 and 2005, according to a report in the Aug. 11 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

More Information

About Four Percent of Teens Have Traded Sex for Money

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- About four percent of U.S. adolescents have traded sex for money or drugs, possibly leading to health problems such as depression or sexually transmitted infections, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Teens Often Use Condoms Incorrectly

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Teens who use condoms often fail to use them correctly, applying them too late or removing them too early, according to a U.K. study published online Aug. 10 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Congenital Heart Block Linked to Maternal Antibodies

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Congenital heart block is caused by maternal antibodies that interfere with the clearance of dead and dying fetal cardiocytes that eventually leads to excessive scarring and inflammation, according to a report published online Aug. 10 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Abstract
Full Text

Excessive Ultrasound Leads to Abnormal Neuronal Migration

FRIDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A small but significant number of neurons in the embryonic mouse brain do not migrate to their proper position after excessively long exposures to ultrasound waves, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Hospitalization Varies Among Asthmatic Minority Children

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Compared to asthmatic black children, asthmatic Puerto Rican children have more severe disease and higher rates of outpatient clinic visits. But they spend only one-third as many days in the hospital for asthma exacerbations, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of Chest.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Lawn Mowers Important Cause of Childhood Injury

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Lawn mowers are a significant source of childhood injury, which may be avoided by improvements in lawn mower design incorporating passive protection, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of Pediatrics.

Abstract
Full Text

One in Four U.S. Preschoolers Overweight or At Risk

THURSDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of being overweight or at risk for being overweight is rising in U.S. children and infants, according to the results of a 22-year analysis of preschoolers published in the July issue of Obesity.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Anakinra Effective for Inflammatory Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- The interleukin-1β blocker anakinra is safe and effective for patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, according to new research published in the Aug. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Inadequate Staffing Ups Infection Risk in NICU

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Too few nurses or having nurses with too heavy a workload may increase the risk of bloodstream infections among infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), according to a report in the August issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Ice-Skaters at High Risk for Concussions, Head Injuries

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Children who engage in ice-skating, roller-skating and in-line skating should wear helmets to reduce the risk of head injury, with ice-skaters particularly vulnerable to concussions and other head injuries, according to a study in the August issue of Pediatrics.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Brain Study Shows Infants Can Detect Errors in Arithmetic

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Infants tend to look longer at incorrect visual arithmetic problems and have brain activity similar to adults who detect math errors, suggesting the brain network responsible for error detection is present during infancy, according to a report published online Aug. 7 by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

HIV Prevention Program for Latino Adolescents Effective

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Latino adolescents participating in a culture- and theory-based HIV prevention program report less sexual intercourse, fewer partners and increased condom use, according to a study in the August issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Children on Antidepressants More Likely to Attempt Suicide

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Children and teens, but not adults, who take antidepressants are more likely to attempt and complete suicide, concludes a new study in the August issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry. The findings support a recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration warning about risk of suicide among children and teens taking antidepressants.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Children Under 5 Most Likely to Get Hurt on Escalators

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Children younger than 5 years of age are more likely than their older counterparts to sustain escalator-related injuries and more likely to suffer injuries to the hand when entrapped, according to a study in the August issue of Pediatrics.

Abstract
Full Text

Younger, Older Teens View Pregnancy Differently

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Younger teens view pregnancy differently than older teens, with more of the former believing a baby can enhance relationships, but also more inclined to expect upheaval, according to a report in the August issue of Pediatrics.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Family Critics Take Toll on Weight-Conscious Women

TUESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Criticism about weight gain from family members can have long-lasting, negative emotional effects on college-aged women already concerned about their weight, according to a report in the August issue of Pediatrics.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Socially Isolated Children May Become Unhealthy Adults

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- People who are socially isolated as children have a more than twofold higher risk of being unhealthy as young adults, even after taking into account established risk factors and unhealthy behaviors, according to a study in the August issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Pollution Linked to Infant Respiratory Death, SIDS

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to air pollutants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are associated with a higher rate of infant respiratory death and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), according to a report in the August issue of Pediatrics.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Birth Defect Risk Higher from Valproate Use in Epilepsy

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who use the antiepileptic drug valproate are at greater risk for teratogenic effects than those who take other antiepilepsy medications, according to a report in the August issue of Neurology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Parents of Teens Often Store Firearms Unsafely

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Parents with adolescents in the home are more likely than those with younger children to store firearms loaded, unlocked or both, according to study results published in the August issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text

Low Vaccine Rates Among Amish Linked to Pertussis

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis still occur in populations where vaccine rates are low, especially isolated communities such as the Amish, according to a report in the Aug. 4 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

More Information

Incentives Improve Use of Shopping Cart Restraints

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- A little cash and a friendly reminder at a supermarket entrance significantly increases the correct use of restraints among young children riding in shopping carts, according to a report in the August issue of Pediatrics.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

New Fathers Also at Risk for Postpartum Depression

MONDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Many new fathers join new mothers in experiencing postpartum depression, according to a report in the August issue of Pediatrics. The depression can affect both the health of the parent and interactions with their child.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Violent Video Games Desensitize to Real Violence

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Playing violent video games for as little as 20 minutes can desensitize people to real-life violence, according to a report published online July 17 in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

FDA Approves Next Season's Influenza Vaccine

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved this year's seasonal influenza vaccines. The vaccines include the new strains of virus judged likely to cause flu in the Northern Hemisphere in 2006-2007.

More Information

Health Benefits Seen in Low-Energy-Density Diets

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who eat a low-energy-density diet consume more food, take in fewer calories and have a healthier diet than people who eat richer diets, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Pediatrics Gave British Women a Foothold in Medicine

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- British women gained access to the medical profession in the 19th and early 20th centuries by establishing a foothold in pediatrics, which was a relatively new and low-paying specialty at the time, according to a report published online Aug. 3 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Longer Needles Cut Local Reactions to Infant Vaccines

FRIDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Infants immunized with 25-mm needles have less adverse reactions to immunization and achieve comparable immunogenicity to that of the more commonly used 16-mm needles, according to a study published online Aug. 4 in BMJ.

Abstract
Full Text

Hyponatremia Risk Low with Oral Rehydration Solution

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- A reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) recommended in 2002 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to treat diarrhea is 50 percent less likely than an older formulation to cause hyponatremia, according to a study published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Breast-Fed Babies Respond Better to Stress in Later Life

THURSDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Children who were breast-fed as babies respond better than their counterparts who were not breast-fed to psychosocial stresses later in life, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Mutations in ABCC8 Gene Linked to Neonatal Diabetes

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Heterozygous activating mutations in the ABCC8 gene may cause both permanent and transient neonatal diabetes, according to a study in the Aug. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. Mutations in ABCC8 affect the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) regulatory subunit of the potassium channels in beta cells, and some patients may be able to switch from insulin to oral sulfonylureas.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial

Lessons Learned from the 2005 Indiana Measles Outbreak

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Important lessons can be learned from a 2005 measles outbreak in Indiana that can help sustain the elimination of this disease in the United States, according to a case series investigation in the Aug. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text

Small Group of Physicians Are Frequent Expert Witnesses

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- In most neurologic birth injury lawsuits, a small group of physicians act as frequent expert witnesses, and plaintiff witnesses tend to have fewer publications and are less likely to have subspecialty board certification than defendant witnesses, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Children's Diets Deteriorate Between Ages Two and Eight

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Children's adherence to new U.S. Department of Agriculture food group guidelines decreases as they grow older, according to a report in the August issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Physician's Briefing