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July 2007 Briefing - Pediatrics

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for July 2007. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Child Abuse in Military More Likely During Deployments

TUESDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Among families of enlisted soldiers in the U.S. Army, the rates of child maltreatment and neglect are higher during combat-related deployments than in other duties, according to a study in the Aug. 1 issue of Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Antibiotics in Children Favor Development of Resistance

TUESDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Children who are prescribed amoxicillin for acute respiratory infection are twice as likely to carry resistant organisms at 2-week follow-up compared to those who do not receive antibiotics, according to a study published online July 26 in BMJ.

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Stimulant Medication Slows Growth in Children With ADHD

TUESDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear to have decreased growth rates after starting treatment, and there is no evidence of growth rebound after three years, according to a report in the August issue of Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The difference amounts to 2.0 cm in height and about 2.0 kg in weight.

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Biking a Common Cause of Pediatric Brain Injury

TUESDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Among all sports and recreational activities, children and teenagers are most likely to experience a nonfatal traumatic brain injury from bike riding and football, according to a report in the July 27 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Marijuana Joint Obstructs Airflow More Than Tobacco

TUESDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- One marijuana joint obstructs airflow in the lungs as much as five tobacco cigarettes, according to a study published online July 31 in Thorax.

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Maternal Smoking Increases Newborn Blood Pressure

MONDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- The systolic blood pressure of newborns whose mothers smoked during pregnancy is significantly higher than that of newborns not exposed to tobacco smoke, according to a study published online July 30 in Hypertension.

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Deep Brain Stimulation Effective in Pediatric Dystonia

MONDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Children with early onset idiopathic generalized dystonia may respond well to deep brain stimulation when medical treatments fail to control symptoms, according to a case report of four patients published in the August issue of Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Nasopharyngeal Aspiration Helps Pediatric TB Diagnosis

MONDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) is a simple and safe method for confirming pulmonary tuberculosis in young children who have difficulty expectorating sputum, reports a study published in the August issue of Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Half of Low Birth-Weight Infants May Have Vision Problems

MONDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Half of children who weigh less than 1,701 grams at birth may go on to experience ophthalmologic problems at the age of 10 to 13 years, and such visual problems are associated with worse cognitive function, according to a study in the July issue of the Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition.

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Premature Infants Have Lower Circulating Adiponectin

MONDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Pre-term infants have lower levels of circulating adiponectin at discharge when compared with their full-term counterparts, and these levels correlate with body weight, according to a study in the July issue of the Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition.

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Intrauterine Growth Restriction Doesn't Affect Mid-Life Quality

FRIDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Being born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) does not appear to adversely impact health-related quality of life in middle age, according to a study in the July issue of Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Stress Levels High in Mothers of Children With Eczema

FRIDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Mothers of young children with eczema experience as much stress as mothers of children with chronic diseases or disabilities, according to a study in the August issue of Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Teens Who Drink Alcohol Tend to Consume Liquor

FRIDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Liquor is the alcoholic beverage of choice for U.S. high school students who report current alcohol use or binge drinking, according to the first state-specific analysis of the types of alcoholic beverages consumed by high school students. The findings appear in the July 27 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, a publication of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Increased Complications Found in Reduced Pregnancies

FRIDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Twins born after the reduction of fetuses from a high-order multiple pregnancy are more likely to be born prematurely and to weigh less at birth than twins born without fetal reduction, although the impact of both outcomes is "relatively small," according to a study published in the July issue of Fertility and Sterility.

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Running Plays Cause Most College, HS Football Injuries

THURSDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- College football players are twice as likely to sustain an injury as high school football players, but high school players are more likely to sustain season-ending injuries, researchers report in the August issue of the American Journal of Sports Medicine.

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Infant Development Predicts Later Cognitive Function

THURSDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The age at which developmental milestones are reached appears to have a small but significant association with subsequent cognitive function, according to a report published online in the July issue of the Annals of Neurology.

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Prenatal Alcohol Affects Brain Areas Inhibiting Behavior

THURSDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Children and adolescents who have fetal alcohol spectrum disorders have altered responses in the frontal-striatal areas of the brain compared to other children their age, according to study findings published in the August issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.

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Steroid Similar to Placebo for Bronchiolitis in Infants

WEDNESDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Dexamethasone does not improve rates of hospital admission, respiratory status or later outcomes such as adverse events in infants with moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis compared with placebo, according to the results of a study published in the July 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Lactation May Be Unimpaired by Breast Reduction Surgery

WEDNESDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Women with macromastia who have undergone superior, medial or inferior pedicle breast reduction surgery have similar breast-feeding success rates as matched controls, according to a report published in the July issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

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Some Crohn's Drugs Linked with Risk of Preterm Birth

WEDNESDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Women with Crohn's disease who take steroids or azathioprine (AZA)/6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) alone or in combination with other drugs during pregnancy may have an increased risk of preterm birth compared to women who take no medication or other medications, according to an analysis of a large Danish registry published in the July issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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Meta-Analyses Often Contain Data-Extraction Errors

TUESDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- A high percentage of meta-analyses based on standardized mean differences may contain data-extraction errors that negate or even reverse their findings, researchers report in the July 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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New Protocol Helps Children with Intracranial Ependymoma

TUESDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- In very young children with intracranial ependymoma, a primary postoperative chemotherapy strategy can help avoid or delay the need for radiotherapy that can damage the patients' developing nervous systems. And it can do so without compromising survival, according to study findings published online July 20 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Sperm Banking Underused in Young Male Cancer Patients

TUESDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Sperm banking is effective for young male cancer patients who need to undergo surgery, radiation or chemotherapy, but it is often underutilized, according to the results of a study published July 23 in Cancer. Although 15 to 30 percent of young male cancer patients will be permanently sterile after treatment, only 18 percent of males under 30 banked sperm prior to treatment.

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Sun Exposure in Childhood May Cut Multiple Sclerosis Risk

MONDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Sun exposure during childhood appears to reduce the risk of developing multiple sclerosis, independent of genetic background, researchers report in the July 24 issue of Neurology.

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Drinking Soda Associated with Metabolic Syndrome

MONDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Consumption of at least one soda per day is associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults, according to a report published in the July 31 issue of Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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If Child Has Cancer, Parents Often Unprepared for Death

MONDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians can help parents become intellectually and emotionally aware of a child's impending death from cancer, which may decrease the risk of depression, particularly in fathers, according to a report published online July 20 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Screening for Group B Strep Has Helped Protect Infants

MONDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Universal screening for perinatal group B streptococcus (GBS) has helped reduce infections in infants, but a recent increase in the disease, especially among black infants, is concerning, according to a report in the July 20 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Sitting Devices Can Be Risky for Very Young Infants

FRIDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Infants less than 1 month old may be at higher risk of sudden death when in a sitting device such as a car seat, according to research published online July 19 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Protocol Improves Survival in Infants with Leukemia

FRIDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- A new hybrid treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that borrows some elements from the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia may improve survival in infants with the disease, according to new data published in the July 21 issue of The Lancet.

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Many Teen Elite Tennis Players Have Spinal Abnormalities

THURSDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Most young elite tennis players with no symptoms of pain have abnormalities in their lower spine including fractures and degenerated discs, according to a report published online July 19 in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

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C-Reactive Protein Linked to Cognition in Child Sleep Apnea

WEDNESDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Children with obstructive sleep apnea who have cognitive impairment are more likely to have increased levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) than children who do not exhibit cognitive impairment, according to study findings published in the July 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Apraclonidine Eye Drops Linked to Adverse Effects in Infants

WEDNESDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Apraclonidine, a selective alpha-2 agonist used in eye drops as a diagnostic test for Horner syndrome in infants, may cause episodes of severe lethargy that persist for up to 10 hours and require hospitalization and oxygen administration, according to a report in the June issue of the Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

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Loss of Taste Unlikely After Tonsillectomy

TUESDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to some published reports, patients are unlikely to have an impaired sense of taste following tonsillectomy, according to the results of a small study published in the July issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery.

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Cranial Irradiation Affects Child's School Performance

TUESDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Most children who undergo cranial irradiation therapy for the treatment of a brain tumor complete their secondary school education on time, but the treatment adversely affects their grades compared to their healthy counterparts, researchers report in the July 17 issue of Neurology.

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Insulin-Like Growth Factor Helps Regulate Bone Growth

MONDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- The growth factor insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a major regulator of bone growth by regulating epiphyseal chondrocyte growth, with some cell types more sensitive to IGF-I than others, according to study findings published in the July issue of Endocrinology.

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Father's Influence Positive If Child's Mother Is Depressed

FRIDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Children of depressed women who have fathers who are positively involved in their upbringing may be less likely to develop problem behaviors than those who do not, researchers report in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Many Factors Contribute to Delay in Child Cancer Diagnosis

THURSDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- There are a number of reasons for delays in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer, including misinterpretation of ambiguous symptoms by patients, parents and physicians, according to a review published online July 9 in Cancer.

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Performance-Related Pay Works Best with Quality Focus

THURSDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- In pediatric care, pay-for-performance programs work best if they are combined with other collaborative efforts to improve the quality of care, according to the results of a study published in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Parents' Views Vary on Age Children Achieve Independence

THURSDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Parents' views on when a child can bathe alone, cross the street and ride a bike unsupervised vary widely, researchers report in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Video Games Cut Into Homework, Reading Time

THURSDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- A study of video game play among adolescents suggests that while gaming may not affect social interactions with family and friends, gamers tend to spend 30 percent less time reading and doing homework than non-gamers, researchers report in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Neural Tube Defects Drop After Folic Acid Fortification

WEDNESDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of neural tube defects fell by nearly half after folic acid fortification of foods was introduced in Canada in 1998, according to a study in the July 12 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Diet Linked to Respiratory Function in Adolescents

WEDNESDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents with low dietary intake of fruit and certain fatty acids are at higher risk of poor respiratory function, researchers report in the July issue of Chest.

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Urban Teens' Weight, Activity Levels Affect Insulin

WEDNESDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight status or low levels of physical activity correlate well with decreased insulin sensitivity and elevated insulin secretion in a population of urban black teens, according to a report in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Prophylactic Antibiotics May Be Harmful for Child UTIs

TUESDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Prophylactic antimicrobial treatment of children with recurring urinary tract infections has unclear benefits and may result in a higher incidence of drug-resistant disease, according to study findings published in the July 11 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Juvenile Polyposis Increases Colorectal Cancer Risk

TUESDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with juvenile polyposis are at significantly higher risk of developing colorectal cancer and should be closely monitored from a young age, according to study findings published in the July issue of Gut.

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Hospitals Miss Opportunities to Vaccinate Vulnerable Children

MONDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatric hospitals need to do a better job to assure admitted children have their required immunizations and up-to-date records prior to discharge, according to a U.K. study published in the July issue of the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Autism-Related Behavior Can Be Detected By 14 Months

MONDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Behavioral changes can be detected in some children with autism spectrum disorder by as early as 14 months of age, according to a prospective study in the July issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Newborn Encephalopathy Risk Associated with Poverty

MONDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Women who live in poor neighborhoods and have less than 12 years of schooling are at increased risk of having a newborn with encephalopathy compared with their peers in higher-income areas who have more education, according to the results of a study in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Many Adults Don't Change Behavior in Heat Waves

FRIDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- While most adults are aware of heat warnings, few change their behavior or know how to take precautions during heat waves, according to a report in the July issue of the International Journal of Biometeorology. The media, health departments and others have done a poor job in educating the public about how to reduce their risk of illness and death during heat waves, the report indicates.

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Antidepressant Use in Children Declined After Warnings

FRIDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- With the exception of fluoxetine, antidepressant use in children and adolescents declined after regulatory authorities issued warnings in 2003, researchers report in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Cortical Deficits Observed in Schizophrenics' Siblings

FRIDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- The healthy siblings of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia may also have cortical deficits, suggesting that the prefrontal and temporal gray matter loss in childhood-onset schizophrenia is a familial/trait marker, according to the results of a study published in the July issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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New Equipment Cuts Illnesses at Child Care Centers

FRIDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Installing high-quality hand-washing and other equipment designed to halt the spread of infectious agents can reduce episodes of illness in children and staff at child care centers, researchers report in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Nearly One in Five U.S. Adults Has Had Alcohol Problem

FRIDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Alcohol abuse and dependence have affected nearly one in five people in the United States at some point in their life, yet less than one-quarter of problem drinkers have ever received treatment, according to a study published in the July issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Merck Recalls Three Lots of Invanz Due to Glass Shards

FRIDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Three lots of Invanz (ertapenem sodium) were recalled this week due to two incidents in which pieces of broken glass were found in the reconstituted solution for injection. Merck & Co., Inc., of Whitehouse Station, N.J., issued a letter to health care professionals noting that it is working closely with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to inform its direct customers of the recall.

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Pet Turtle Linked to Infant's Death

FRIDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Small pet turtles sold in the United States are associated with a risk of salmonellosis in children, and may have caused an infant's death earlier this year, according to a report in the July 6 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Their sale is banned by federal law in the United States, but sales still occur.

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Some Children Get Hooked on Tobacco Within Two Days

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Vulnerable sixth-graders can lose control over tobacco just one or two days after inhaling their first cigarette, researchers report in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Deliberate Self-Harm in Teens Linked to Social Factors

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents who engage in occasional deliberate self-harm are affected by social factors, while those who repeatedly harm themselves are more likely to have emotional and behavioral problems, including suicidal tendencies, according to a report published in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Boys More Likely Than Girls to Mirror Parental Misconduct

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Male children are more likely than females to have a conduct problem if they have a parent with a history of misconduct, researchers report in the July issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry. Overall, environmental factors appear to play a bigger role in male intergenerational misconduct, while genetics may play a bigger role for females.

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Children with Cerebral Palsy Have Regular Quality of Life

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Children aged 8 to 12 years with cerebral palsy have a quality of life that is similar to that of their peers in the general population, according to a study published in the June 30 issue of The Lancet.

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Two Doses of Varicella Vaccine Now Recommended

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- All children aged 12 months and older should receive two doses of varicella vaccine, a strategy that should lead to higher levels of immunity, protect against breakthrough disease and reduce the number of outbreaks in school-aged populations, according to new recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics published in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Depression Treatment Reduces Suicide Risk in Teens, Adults

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with depression, the risk of suicide attempts significantly decreases after the initiation of antidepressant treatment, psychotherapy or both, according to study findings published in the July issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.

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New Hepatitis A Vaccination Guidelines Issued

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- All children aged 12-23 months in all 50 states should receive a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-licensed hepatitis A vaccine, according to new American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations published in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Some Naturopathic Physicians Provide Pediatric Care

TUESDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Some naturopathic physicians, who treat the whole person by natural means including nutrition and exercise, provide substantial amounts of pediatric care, according to a report in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Off-Road Motorized Vehicle Injuries Rising Among Children

TUESDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- The annual number of injuries involving children using non-automobile motorized vehicles nearly doubled between 1990 and 2003, with almost half due to all-terrain vehicles, according to study findings published in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Older Youth Hockey Players at Higher Risk of Injury

MONDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Relatively older players in youth Canadian ice hockey leagues are at higher risk of injury than younger children, particularly at more competitive levels of play, according to a report in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Low Household Income Linked to Migraine Risk in Teens

MONDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents in low-income households have a higher risk of migraine than those in upper-income households, but only if there is no parental history of migraine, according to a study published in the July 3 issue of Neurology.

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Preadolescent Athletes May Use Doping Agents

MONDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Among preadolescent athletes who train every day, a small percentage use doping agents, which increases over time, according to the results of a French study published in the June issue of the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

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Physician's Briefing
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