July 2011 Briefing - Pediatrics

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for July 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Evidence Shows Early Weight Gain Tied to Large Body Size

FRIDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Large body size in children between the ages of 5 and 6 months, and weight gain during the first two years of life have a positive association with larger body size at the ages of 5 to 13 years, according to a review published in the August issue of Obesity Reviews.

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CDC: Nonfatal Sports and Recreation Heat Illness Studied

THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals who take part in unstructured sports and recreational activities, especially during the summer months, may be at an increased risk of heat illness, according to a report in the July 29 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Somatic Mosaicism in AKT1 Causes Proteus Syndrome

WEDNESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- A somatic activating mutation in the oncogene AKT1 has been found to cause Proteus syndrome, a condition characterized by the overgrowth of skin, connective tissue, brain, and other tissues, according to a study published online July 27 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Rotavirus Infection Gives Lower Protection in India

WEDNESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Rotavirus infection in India tends to occur early in life, has higher reinfection rates, and lower rates of protection against subsequent infection episodes than reported elsewhere, according to a study published in the July 28 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Child's Cognitive Outcome Not Tied to Pregnancy Planning

WEDNESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Pre-pregnancy planning, subfertility, and assisted reproduction have no adverse effect on a child's cognitive development at ages 3 or 5, and the differences in cognition seen in unadjusted analysis can mainly be explained by socioeconomic confounders, according to a study published online July 26 in BMJ.

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Parental Deployment Tied to Impaired Adolescent Well-Being

WEDNESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Parental military service impairs parameters of adolescent well-being, particularly for boys, according to a study published online July 21 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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Limited Positive Effect of Restaurant Calorie Labeling

WEDNESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S regulation requiring fast food restaurants to add calorie labeling has not impacted the mean calories purchased at lunchtime, but some major chains have seen significant reductions, and 15 percent of customers use the information and purchase fewer calories, according to a study published online July 26 in BMJ.

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Stable Rate of Chronic Conditions for Children Born at <1 kg

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The overall rate of chronic conditions and asthma in children born weighing less than 1 kg (extremely low-birth-weight [ELBW] children) remains stable between the ages of 8 and 14 years, but obesity increases compared to normal-birth-weight (NBW) children; so that, at age 14, the rates of chronic conditions are higher in ELBW children, but asthma and obesity are similar, according to a study published in the July 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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AVI-4658 Safe and Effective for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer AVI-4658 has been found to safely induce new dystrophin protein expression in a significant dose-dependent manner in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), according to a study published online July 25 in The Lancet.

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Breast-Feeding Tied to Child's Risk of Asthma Symptoms

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Compared to exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding for six months, non-exclusive breast-feeding or never breast-feeding is associated with an increased risk of asthma-related symptoms in children during the first four years of their life, with the strongest association occurring in the first two years, according to a study published online July 20 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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Crossing Environment Tied to Pedestrian Injury Rates in ADHD

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined type (ADHD-C) show appropriate pedestrian behavior on the curb but choose riskier pedestrian environments to cross the street, according to a study published online July 25 in Pediatrics.

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Foods Prepared Away From Home Tied to Child's Energy Intake

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- An increase in children's total daily energy intake from 1977 to 2006 correlated with a major shift toward increased energy from foods consumed or prepared away from home, according to a study published online July 25 in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

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Propranolol Safe and Effective for Infantile Hemangiomas

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with propranolol reduces the volume, color, and elevation of infantile hemangiomas (IHs), according to a study published online July 25 in Pediatrics.

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Non-Receipt of Fluids in Children Tied to Increased Oligoanuria

MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Young patients with pre-hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) diarrhea, who do not receive intravenous fluids within the first four days of diarrhea onset, have increased risk of developing oligoanuria, according to a study published online July 22 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Specific Child Health Care Needs Tied to Poor School Outcomes

MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs due to functional limitations or behavioral health problems are at higher risk of poor outcomes at school, including lower academic achievement, according to a study published online July 25 in Pediatrics.

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High Mortality Decline With One-Dose Varicella Vaccine

MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Overall varicella mortality decreased by 88 percent following implementation of the one-dose vaccination program, with a 96 percent decrease in individuals aged younger than 50 years, according to a study published online July 25 in Pediatrics.

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Pagibaximab Seems Safe, Well Tolerated in High-Risk Neonates

MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Three once-a-week infusions of 90 mg/kg of pagibaximab in neonates who are at high risk for staphylococcal sepsis appears to be safe and well tolerated, with no cases of staphylococcal sepsis occurring, according to a study published online July 25 in Pediatrics.

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Pediatric High-Risk Leukemia Survival Has Improved Over Time

FRIDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatric patients with high-risk leukemia, either acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who are treated with contemporary protocols have improved survival compared to earlier cohorts and have a favorable outcome after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), regardless of donor type, according to a study published in the July 14 issue of Blood.

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Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Tied to Vascular Dysfunction

FRIDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal nicotine exposure in rats can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in vascular hypertensive reactivity in male offspring, according to an experimental study published online July 21 in the British Journal of Pharmacology.

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Medical Students Support Right to Conscientious Objection

THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of medical students in the United Kingdom, especially Muslims, believe in the right of doctors to conscientiously object to or refuse any procedure, according to a study published online July 18 in the Journal of Medical Ethics.

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Hand Expression Linked to Improved Breast-Feeding Rates

THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Mothers who hand-express breast milk for their term infants feeding poorly shortly after birth are more likely to breast-feed their infants at two months than mothers who express with electric pumps, according to a study published online July 11 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal.

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Some Restaurant Foods Have More Calories Than Indicated

WEDNESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- The overall measured and stated energy content of restaurant foods is accurate, but there is considerable discrepancy between stated and measured energy content for individual food items, according to a study published in the July 20 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Secondhand Smoke Linked to Hearing Loss in Adolescents

TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with an increased prevalence of low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and elevated pure-tone hearing thresholds in adolescents, according to a study published in the July issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

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FDA Approves Vaccine for 2011/2012 Influenza Season

TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that the agency has approved the influenza vaccine formulation for the 2011/2012 influenza season; this formulation will be used by the six manufacturers licensed to manufacture and distribute the vaccine in the United States.

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Acute Nondisplaced Scaphoid Fractures Heal Without Surgery

TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Most acute, nondisplaced, scaphoid fractures in children and adolescents heal with nonoperative treatment, but those presenting late or with displacement have a lower union rate, according to a study published in the July 6 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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Bed-Sharing With Children Not Linked to Cognitive Outcomes

TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- There appears to be no negative association between mother-child bed-sharing between the ages of 1 and 3 years, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes at age 5 years, according to a study published online July 18 in Pediatrics.

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Obese, Not Overweight Teens Get More Preventive Screening

MONDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- More preventive screening is provided to obese adolescents than those who are overweight or normal weight, according to a study published online July 18 in Pediatrics.

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Children Safer in Car Crashes When Grandparents Driving

MONDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Children have a reduced risk of injury in crashes with grandparents as drivers than with parents, despite less optimal use of child restraint in grandparent-driver crashes, according to a study published online July 18 in Pediatrics.

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Most Pediatric C3 Pedicles Too Thin for Safe Screw Insertion

MONDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Although the majority of pediatric C3 pedicles are too thin for safe cervical pedicle screw (CPS) insertion, at all other levels pedicle morphometrics allow for safe application of 3 mm CPS, according to a study published in the July 15 issue of Spine.

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Child Immune Response Tied to Mothers' Cytokine Production

FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal inflammatory cytokines in pregnancy are associated with the corresponding cytokine levels in children at age 1 year, but children's atopic dermatitis is only associated with maternal atopic dermatitis, according to a study published in the August issue of Allergy.

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BMI Increase From Adolescence to Adulthood Began in 1990s

FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- The sharp body mass index (BMI) increase seen in adolescence began in the 1990s and in young adults in 2000, according to a study published online July 12 in the Journal of Adolescent Health.

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Severe Asthma Not Linked to Persistent Viral Presence

FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Respiratory-virus detection rates in the airways of patients with clinically stable and severe asthma are not significantly different from those of healthy controls, according to a study published in the August issue of Allergy.

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Pediatric Cardiologists' ECG Analyses Not Always Accurate

THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Electrocardiograms (ECG) administered to young athletes to determine the suitability of sports participation are difficult for pediatric cardiologists to interpret with complete accuracy, according to a study published online July 14 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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MYO1E Mutations Linked to Glomerulosclerosis

THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Mutations in the non-muscle class I myosin, myosin 1E (Myo1E) gene, MYO1E, are associated with childhood-onset, glucocorticoid-resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, according to a study published online July 13 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Low Positive Affect in Childhood Factors Into Eventual Depression

THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Low positive affect (PA) may be an early vulnerability factor for unipolar depressive disorder in at-risk children, and has more of an impact than high negative affect (NA), according to a study published in the July issue of the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

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Albuterol Not Better Than Placebo in Self-Report Outcomes

WEDNESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Albuterol increases maximum forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in patients with asthma, but self-reported outcomes did not improve significantly with albuterol compared to placebo inhaler or sham acupuncture, according to a study published in the July 14 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Many Americans Lack Access to Oral Health Care Services

WEDNESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Many Americans are not receiving necessary oral health care services due to barriers that hinder their access to dental care, according to a report by the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council published online July 13.

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Older Children Less Responsive to Treatment for Amblyopia

TUESDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Children aged 7 to less than 13 years of age are significantly less responsive to treatment for moderate and severe amblyopia than younger children, according to a meta-analysis published online July 11 in the Archives of Ophthalmology.

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Medicaid Payments Linked to Dental Care in Children

TUESDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Children with Medicaid use dental care more frequently than uninsured children, with changes in state Medicaid payments positively correlated with higher receipt of dental care, according to a study published in the July 13 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Secondhand Smoke Tied to Child Neurobehavioral Issues

MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Postnatal exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with an increase in the risk of neurobehavioral disorders among children, according to a study published online July 11 in Pediatrics.

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Folate Intake Positively Linked to Academic Achievement

MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Folate intake is positively associated with academic achievement in 15-year-old children, according to a study published online July 11 in Pediatrics.

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Increase in Staph Pneumonia in Children Mainly Due to MSRA

MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- The number of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) pneumonia cases in children increased between August 2001 and April 2009, with methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) responsible for 74 percent of the cases, according to a study published in the July issue of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.

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Early Metformin Therapy Prevents, Delays PCOS in Girls

MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Early metformin therapy in girls with low birth weight and precocious puberty (LBW-PP) prevents or delays the development of hirsutism, androgen excess, oligomenorrhea, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), according to a study published online June 1 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Traditional Diabetes Classifications Apply to Youths

MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Most youths with diabetes have characteristics similar to traditional descriptions of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the July issue of Diabetes Care.

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Maternal Vaccination Tied to Fewer Flu Hospitalizations

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among infants aged less than 6 months, according to a study published in the June issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Prenatal Distress Tied to Higher Risk of Childhood Wheeze

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal demoralization is associated with an increased risk of childhood wheeze among low-income urban African-Americans and Hispanics, according to a study published in the July issue of the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

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New Report IDs Indicators of Children's Well-Being

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Seven major domains characterize or influence the well-being of a child by means of various indicators, according to the "America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being 2011" report, published by the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics.

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H1N1, Seasonal Flu Vaccines From 2009 to 2010 Were Safe

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The pandemic H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza vaccines administered during the 2009 to 2010 season had no associated major safety problems, according to a study published online July 5 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Conservative Scoliosis Treatment Tied to Lower Self-Concept

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Conservative treatment of adolescent scoliosis may decrease self-concept scores, according to a study published in the July 1 issue of Spine.

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New Regimens Equal to Standard Isoniazid for Adults With HIV

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Novel secondary regimens to prevent tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults are no more effective than standard isoniazid for achieving tuberculosis-free survival; and isoniazid prophylaxis is not effective for improving tuberculosis-free survival in HIV-infected or uninfected children, according to two studies published in the July 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Eating Disorders Associated With High Mortality Rates

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with eating disorders -- anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) -- have significantly increased mortality rates, with the highest rate in those with AN, according to a meta-analysis published in the July issue in the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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High Risk of Rereport in Child Abuse Cases

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- A large percentage of children who remain in the home following an abuse report are at an increased risk of rereports and reabuse, according to a study published online July 4 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Withdrawal of Life Support Main Mode of NICU Deaths

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Withdrawing life-sustaining support is the primary mode of death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and there has been a significant annual increase in withholding of care, according to a study published in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Parental Deployment to War Takes Mental Toll on Children

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Increased mental health diagnoses are observed in children of U.S. military personnel deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), according to a study published online July 4 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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First Trimester Antidepressant Use Tied to Childhood ASD

TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), especially during the first trimester of pregnancy, may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children, according to a study published online July 4 in the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Lopinavir-Ritonavir Treatment Tied to Adrenal Dysfunction

TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Postnatal treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (LR) for newborn children of HIV-1 infected mothers who were exposed to LR in utero have an increased risk of transient adrenal dysfunction, according to a study published in the July 6 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Late Talking Does Not Impact Later Behavioral Problems

TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Language delay is associated with behavioral problems at age 2, but this delay is not a risk factor for behavioral or emotional problems in later childhood and adolescence, according to a study published online July 4 in Pediatrics.

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Shared Environment Tied to Autism Risk in Healthy Twin

TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- In twins, shared environment may have a greater impact on susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than genetic inheritance, according to a study published online July 4 in the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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Underage Men Drink More During Holiday Weekend

FRIDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- There are an increased number of visits to hospital emergency departments for alcohol-related events over the fourth of July weekend, with young men at a higher risk than women, according to a study published on June 30 by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

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Around One in 10 Computerized Prescriptions Contains Errors

FRIDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Approximately one in 10 computerized outpatient prescriptions contains errors, a third of which are potential adverse drug events, according to a study published online June 29 in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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Multiple Sclerosis Not Tied to Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

FRIDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- For pregnant women, multiple sclerosis (MS) is not associated with adverse pregnancy or birth outcomes, according to a study published online June 27 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Physician's Briefing