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Vaccination Ends Disparities in Pneumococcal Disease

Increased risk linked to race, group child care attendance no longer exists for vaccine-type IPD

MONDAY, June 14 (HealthDay News) -- The vaccination of young children with seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in recent years has eliminated disparities in risk for vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) associated with race and group child care attendance, according to a case-control study published online June 14 in Pediatrics.

Tamar Pilishvili, of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, and colleagues used 2001 to 2004 surveillance data to identify 782 cases of IPD (45 percent vaccine-type IPD) in children 3 to 59 months old, then matched the study subjects by age and ZIP code with 2,512 controls without IPD.

The researchers found that race, group child care attendance, household income, or recent history of antibiotic use did not affect the risk for vaccine-type IPD among vaccinated children. However, for children who received any PCV7, the risk for vaccine-type IPD was higher for those who were male, had an underlying illness, or were without health care coverage. Vaccination did not affect the risk for non-vaccine-type IPD. Children with non-vaccine-type IPD were more likely than controls to be male, live in low-income households, attend group child care, or have asthma.

"Vaccination with PCV7 has reduced the risk for vaccine-type IPD that is associated with race and group child care attendance. Because these factors are still associated with non-vaccine-type IPD risk, additional reductions in disparities should be expected with new, higher valency conjugate vaccines," the authors write.

Two authors disclosed financial relationships with Wyeth and Merck.

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