January 2009 Briefing - Pulmonology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for January 2009. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Early Blood Transfusion Increases Respiratory Risk

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Early transfusion of packed red blood cells, particularly in large amounts, increases the risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in trauma patients, researchers report in the February issue of Anesthesiology.

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BNP Levels Not a Superior Guide for Heart Failure Therapy

TUESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Using N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels to guide heart failure therapy does not improve overall clinical outcomes or patient quality of life compared to using symptoms to guide treatment, according to a report published in the Jan. 28 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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AHA Supports Omega-6 for Possible Heart Protection

TUESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- The American Heart Association recommends that at least 5 to 10 percent of individuals' calories should come from omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, according to a science advisory published online Jan. 26 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Overnight Rostral Fluid Shift Linked to Impaired Sleep

TUESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- In non-obese men, overnight fluid displacement from the legs to the neck related to prolonged sitting may play a previously unrecognized role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea, according to research published in the February issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Clinical Information Technology Leads to Safer Hospitals

TUESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitals that make use of clinical information technology to automate notes, records, order entry and clinical decision support have lower mortality rates, fewer complications and also save money, according to a report published in the Jan. 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Linked to Insulin Resistance

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance in obesity and also independently of obesity, which may increase the risk of developing other chronic conditions, according to two studies published in the February issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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AHA Reveals Top 10 Heart Disease Research Advances

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- The American Heart Association (AHA) has released its annual top 10 list of advances in research into heart disease and stroke, with a study on the impact of smoke-free legislation on hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome topping the list.

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CDC Reports Increase of Hib Infections in Minnesota

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Five children in Minnesota have become ill with Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) in the past year, and one of them died, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced Jan. 23.

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Smoking Causes Over 440,000 US Deaths Each Year

MONDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- There were an estimated 443,000 deaths a year from 2000 to 2004 attributable to smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke in the United States, according to a report published in the Jan. 23 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Mortality Not Down in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

FRIDAY, Jan. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Despite some assertions to the contrary, mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome has not significantly decreased since publication of a consensus definition in 1994, according to a report published in the February issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Occupational Exposures Increase Nurses' Asthma Risk

THURSDAY, Jan. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Nurses who are exposed to occupational cleaning products and disinfectants may have an increased risk of new-onset asthma, according to a report published online Jan. 22 in Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

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Less Air Pollution Linked to Higher Life Expectancy

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Reductions in air pollution over the last few decades in the United States are associated with increases in life expectancy, researchers report in the Jan. 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Prednisolone Ineffective for Virus-Induced Wheezing

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 21 (HealthDay News) -- The oral corticosteroid prednisolone should not be routinely given to children with wheezing due to a viral infection, according to research published in the Jan. 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Preterm Infants May Be Exposed to Toxic Additives in Meds

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 21 (HealthDay News) -- After birth, premature babies are exposed to multiple, potentially toxic excipients, suggesting that strategies are needed to reduce the excipient load, according to a study published online Jan. 21 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition.

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Blacks Less Likely Than Whites to Have Lung Cancer Surgery

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Among patients with lung cancer, black patients are less likely than white patients to undergo recommended lung resection, but the disparity in treatment does not appear to have an impact on outcomes, according to research published in the January issue of the Archives of Surgery.

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New Guidelines Issued for Tuberculosis Testing

MONDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Although culture remains the gold standard for laboratory confirmation of tuberculosis, nucleic acid amplification testing should be standard practice in suspected cases because it shortens the amount of time required to diagnose the disease from one or two weeks to one or two days, according to updated guidelines published in the Jan. 16 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Hospitalizations Decline in Young Children with Pneumonia

MONDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- In 2005 and 2006, the incidence rates for all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children under age 2 significantly declined compared with the 1997-1999 rates, suggesting an association with the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, according to a report published in the Jan. 16 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Multiple Factors Determine Childhood Asthma Prescriptions

THURSDAY, Jan. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Patient, family and physician characteristics all play a significant role in driving the prescription of asthma medication to children, researchers report in the January/February issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Congestion Therapy's Link to Respiratory Distress Studied

TUESDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- In ferrets, exposure to Vicks VapoRub was associated with effects that might explain the respiratory symptoms seen in some young children given the product intranasally, according to research published in the January issue of Chest.

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Arterial Oxygen Pressure Drop at High Elevation Studied

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- In extremely high altitudes, people experience an elevated difference in alveolar-arterial oxygen, suggesting a functional limitation in pulmonary diffusion or a degree of subclinical pulmonary edema, according to research published in the Jan. 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Controls on Indoor Radon Could Cut Lung Cancer Deaths

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- By concentrating on the minority of homes with high radon levels, the British government is missing out on a chance to reduce radon-related deaths in homes with lower levels of exposure to the natural air pollutant, according to research published online Jan. 6 in BMJ.

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Health-Care Associated Cases Have More Severe Pneumonia

TUESDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with health care-associated pneumonia had more severe disease and higher mortality than those with community-acquired pneumonia, according to research published in the Jan. 6 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Cervical Cancer Cofactors Linked to Secondary Cancers

MONDAY, Jan. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Among survivors of cervical cancer, the risk of a second smoking-related cancer is significantly higher in cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients than in adenocarcinoma patients, according to study findings published online Dec. 29 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Gene Hypermethylation Seen in Lung Cancer Patients

FRIDAY, Jan. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Promoter methylation in certain genes may point to an increased risk of lung cancer in individuals, according to research published in the Jan. 1 issue of Cancer Research.

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Physician's Briefing