July 2011 Briefing - Pulmonology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for July 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

VTE Rates Post Knee Arthroplasty Increased '97-'07

THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- The rate of venous thromboembolism following knee arthroplasty has increased from 1997 to 2007, with a higher risk among patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or a prior venous thromboembolism, according to a study published in the July 20 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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EGFR Mutation Abundance Affects Therapy in NSCLC

THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- The abundance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with a response to treatment with the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), gefitinib, according to a study published online July 25 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Somatic Mosaicism in AKT1 Causes Proteus Syndrome

WEDNESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- A somatic activating mutation in the oncogene AKT1 has been found to cause Proteus syndrome, a condition characterized by the overgrowth of skin, connective tissue, brain, and other tissues, according to a study published online July 27 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Stable Rate of Chronic Conditions for Children Born at <1 kg

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The overall rate of chronic conditions and asthma in children born weighing less than 1 kg (extremely low-birth-weight [ELBW] children) remains stable between the ages of 8 and 14 years, but obesity increases compared to normal-birth-weight (NBW) children; so that, at age 14, the rates of chronic conditions are higher in ELBW children, but asthma and obesity are similar, according to a study published in the July 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Breast-Feeding Tied to Child's Risk of Asthma Symptoms

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Compared to exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding for six months, non-exclusive breast-feeding or never breast-feeding is associated with an increased risk of asthma-related symptoms in children during the first four years of their life, with the strongest association occurring in the first two years, according to a study published online July 20 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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AVI-4658 Safe and Effective for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer AVI-4658 has been found to safely induce new dystrophin protein expression in a significant dose-dependent manner in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), according to a study published online July 25 in The Lancet.

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FDA: Chantix Tied to Slight Risk of Cardiac Events

MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration notified health care professionals and patients that the drug label for varenicline (Chantix) was updated to include information about the effectiveness and safety of the drug when used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cardiovascular disease.

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Lower In-Hospital Mortality for Obese Patients With RI/ARDS

MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity is associated with a decreased incidence of in-hospital mortality in patients who develop postoperative respiratory insufficiency (RI)/adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), according to a study published online July 21 in the Journal of Intensive Care Medicine.

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Longer NSCLC Progression-Free Survival With Erlotinib

FRIDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with erlotinib is associated with longer progression-free survival than standard chemotherapy for patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to a study published online July 22 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Medical Students Support Right to Conscientious Objection

THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of medical students in the United Kingdom, especially Muslims, believe in the right of doctors to conscientiously object to or refuse any procedure, according to a study published online July 18 in the Journal of Medical Ethics.

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Soldiers' Dyspnea Could Be Constrictive Bronchiolitis

WEDNESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Constrictive bronchiolitis should be considered as a reason for unexplained exertional dyspnea among previously healthy soldiers with a history of inhalational exposure, according to a study published in the July 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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FDA Approves Vaccine for 2011/2012 Influenza Season

TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that the agency has approved the influenza vaccine formulation for the 2011/2012 influenza season; this formulation will be used by the six manufacturers licensed to manufacture and distribute the vaccine in the United States.

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Increased Mortality for Isolated Rural Patients With COPD

TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) living in isolated rural areas have increased mortality from COPD exacerbations compared to those living in urban areas, according to a study published in the July 19 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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A-Fib Ups Risk of Upper-Limb Thromboembolectomy

MONDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of upper-limb thromboembolectomy, according to a study published online July 7 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

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Severe Asthma Not Linked to Persistent Viral Presence

FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Respiratory-virus detection rates in the airways of patients with clinically stable and severe asthma are not significantly different from those of healthy controls, according to a study published in the August issue of Allergy.

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Albuterol Not Better Than Placebo in Self-Report Outcomes

WEDNESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Albuterol increases maximum forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in patients with asthma, but self-reported outcomes did not improve significantly with albuterol compared to placebo inhaler or sham acupuncture, according to a study published in the July 14 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Positive Airway Pressure Betters Endothelial Dysfunction

TUESDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mostly reverses endothelial dysfunction and impaired myocardial perfusion in healthy individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), according to a study published online July 11 in Hypertension.

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Increase in Staph Pneumonia in Children Mainly Due to MSRA

MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- The number of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) pneumonia cases in children increased between August 2001 and April 2009, with methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) responsible for 74 percent of the cases, according to a study published in the July issue of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.

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Prenatal Distress Tied to Higher Risk of Childhood Wheeze

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal demoralization is associated with an increased risk of childhood wheeze among low-income urban African-Americans and Hispanics, according to a study published in the July issue of the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

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Combination Therapy for A-Fib Increases Bleeding Risk

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Combination antithrombotic therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of bleeding and no reduction in the risk of stroke, according to a study published in the July issue of Chest.

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CT Tumor Measure Changes Not Indicative of Progression

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- There is a clinically important magnitude of tumor measurement variability inherent in repeat computed tomography (CT) imaging, especially for small tumors, which may not be indicative of tumor progression, according to a study published online July 5 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Factors in Acinetobacter Infection Transmission ID'd

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The identification of themes involved in the transmission of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter infections, sources of transmission, and interventions to reduce infections offer new insight into MDR Acinetobacter infections in war injuries, according to a review published in the July issue of the AORN Journal.

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Delayed Disease Recognition in One in Five Patients With PAH

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- One in five patients report symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) for more than two years before the disease is diagnosed, with patients younger than 36 years being most likely to experience delayed recognition, according to a study published in the July issue of Chest.

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Possible Chemopreventive Role for Celecoxib in Lung Cancer

FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Celecoxib significantly reduces bronchial Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI), and may be a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer in former smokers, according to a study published in the July issue of Cancer Prevention Research.

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Long-Term Indacaterol Effective in Pulmonary Disease

THURSDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) tolerate indacaterol well, and have improved bronchodilation at 52 weeks, according to a study published in the July issue of Chest.

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Pulmonary HTN Prevalence Studied in Sickle Cell Cases

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, as confirmed by right heart catheterization, in adult patients with sickle cell disease is about six percent, according to a study published in the July 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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New Regimens Equal to Standard Isoniazid for Adults With HIV

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Novel secondary regimens to prevent tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults are no more effective than standard isoniazid for achieving tuberculosis-free survival; and isoniazid prophylaxis is not effective for improving tuberculosis-free survival in HIV-infected or uninfected children, according to two studies published in the July 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Nesiritide Has Small, Nonsignificant Effect on Dyspnea

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Use of nesiritide has a small, nonsignificant effect on dyspnea in patients with acute heart failure, and is not associated with changes in rates of death and rehospitalizations, according to a study published in the July 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Sedentary Lifestyle Tied to Pulmonary Embolism Risk

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- A sedentary lifestyle is associated with an increased risk of incident pulmonary embolism in women, according to a study published online July 4 in BMJ.

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Withdrawal of Life Support Main Mode of NICU Deaths

WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Withdrawing life-sustaining support is the primary mode of death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and there has been a significant annual increase in withholding of care, according to a study published in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Arcapta Inhaler Approved for COPD

TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- The Arcapta Neohaler (indacaterol inhalation powder) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the long-term treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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Fewer Clinical Capabilities in Critical Access Rural Hospitals

TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Rural critical access hospitals (CAHs) have fewer clinical capabilities, significantly poorer performance on process measures, and higher 30-day mortality rates than non-CAHs for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure, and pneumonia, according to a study published in the July 6 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Increasing Incidence of U.S. In-Hospital Cardiac Arrests

TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Approximately 200,000 patients are treated for in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) annually in the United States, according to a study published online June 23 in Critical Care Medicine.

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Physician's Briefing